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History and Reference

Information about the history of your BMW 2002 and Neue Klasse car. All that was and that you need to know. Submit an Article if you have something to share.
steve k.
This repair manual is intended to ensure that the maintenance and repair work required  for BMW cars is done in the correct manner. Therefore this manual should be used by inspectors and fitters as it helps to supplement the practical and theoretical knowledge they have acquired at our service training school
 
The relevant specifications are always provided at the beginning of each main group.
 
 
Introduction Axle - Front Axle - Rear Automatic Transmission Body Equipment Body Work Brakes Clutch Electrical System - General Engine - Electrical Engine and Mechanical Equipment (Miscellaneous) Exhaust Foot Pedals Fuel System Fuel Tank Gear Selection Gearbox (Manual) Heat and Air Conditioning Instrument Panel Radiator Radio and Antenna Seats Steering Whee Alignment Wheels and Tires Wiring Diagrams Wiring Diagram (Oversized)

Mike Self
BMW 1600-2 In 1966, BMW was practically unknown in the US unless you were a touring motorcycle enthusiast, or had seen an Isetta given away on a quiz show.  BMW’s sales in the US that year were just 1253 cars.  Then BMW 1600-2 came to America’s shores, tripling US sales to 4564 the following year, boosted by favorable articles in the Buff Books. Car and Driver called it “the best $2500 sedan anywhere.”  Road & Track’s road test was equally enthusiastic.  Then BMW took a cue from American manufacturers and stuffed their largest m10 engine in their smallest body and created the 2002.  That opened the floodgates, and established BMW as the premier performance automobile line in the US.  ’02 series sales alone in 1969 were 9637, 2/3 of those 2002s, in their first year of sales in the US.  By the end of the BMW 2002 production in 1976, BMW’s annual US sales were over 26,000, and BMW was no longer an unknown make in the US; it was—and still is--The Ultimate Driving Machine. 
 
After World War II, BMW was in dire straits.  Their Eisenach factory was in what became East Germany and lost to the company, along with critical tooling and dies.  Their Munich factory was in ruins, having suffered extensive bombing damage.  For several years, the company survived by making aluminum cookware, bicycles and other small items.  It wasn’t until 1948 that motorcycle production resumed; cars didn’t come until 1952.  And those were basically warmed-over pre-war models—large and expensive.  Not what was needed—or what sold—in struggling, postwar Germany.
 
BMW Isetta A fortuitous licensing agreement in 1955 with Iso—an Italian appliance manufacturer—allowed BMW to build the egg-shaped Isetta, with a single cylinder BMW motorcycle engine replacing the Italian two-stroke scooter engine.  While barely qualifying as a car—at least it had four wheels—an Isetta was the perfect step up from a motorcycle or scooter, allowing (at least small) German families to travel snug and dry—if not rapidly.
 
BMW 700 The Isetta’s success—in one and two door versions--begat the BMW 700, a proper car, albeit small and still powered by a motorcycle engine.  But neither the Isetta, the 700, the large 501 and 502 “Baroque Angels”--essentially pre-war designs--plus penny numbers of luxurious coupes and convertibles were enough to keep BMW solvent.

With Daimler-Benz sniffing around BMW’s door looking for a bargain takeover, the Quandt family intervened and bought into the company with sufficient funds to keep things going—and to allow the development and production of the company’s savior model, the Neue Klasse (NK) sedan.  This, BMW’s first new-from-the-ground up model since before World War II was a success from its initial introduction in the fall of 1961.
 
BMW 1500 By 1964 BMW knew they had a hit on their hands, and were offering the basic sedan body with several trim levels and different engine displacements.  But with the discontinuation of the Isetta and the 700, the entry price of the least expensive NK sedan was beyond the reach of many Germans, the country’s “economic miracle” notwithstanding.  The company needed a car that bespoke BMW in performance, handling and appointments, but less expensive—and thus necessarily smaller—than the NK sedans.  Enter Type 114.

Running gear development was relatively simple:  use the drivetrain and suspension from the NK sedans, already well-developed and mounted on subframes.  Then design a smaller, two door body with lines that mimicked the larger sedans, and buyers would have everything a NK owner would have except for two doors and a bit more rear leg room—for considerably fewer Marks.

By May, 1965 designer Georg Bertram had the final body design complete; the entire package was approved by BMW’s board in November, and the car— designated the 1600-2 to differentiate it from the four-door 1600 — was officially introduced on March 9, 1966 during BMW’s 50th anniversary celebration.  
 
BMW 1600 Window Sticker While the NK sedans were sold in the US by Hoffman Motors, the importer, annual sales were in the very low four figure range.  They were relatively expensive, priced with comparable small Mercedes Benz models (and much larger Oldsmobiles and Buicks) and sold by a company that was practically unknown in the US—unless you were a motorcycle enthusiast.  BMW 1600-2 changed that.  Only a few two-doors made it to the US in 1966, but in 1967, BMW’s US sales jumped to 4564, from only 1253 cars the previous year.  Max Hoffman knew he had a hit on his hands.  He also knew the hit would be even bigger with a bit more than the 1600’s 85 horsepower; it was adequate, but not really Performance.  He first thought to import the performance version of the 1600-2 with dual sidedraft carbs and 15 more horsepower.  However, the looming US emission standards nixed that idea; all that carburetion would never pass Federal standards. 

But there was a 2-liter version of the 1600 engine, identical on the outside, that would bolt right into the two-door’s engine compartment.  And with just a single barrel carburetor, it generated 100 horsepower, same as the now verboten BMW 1600ti.  Coincidentally, two BMW executives had the same idea and had the factory fit the larger m10 engine from the BMW 2000 sedan into their personal 1600-2 cars.  With US sales suddenly increasing—solely due to the two door, when Hoffman approached the factory with his two liter idea, they were receptive.  BMW 2002 was born.
 
BMW 2002 The first ones arrived in the US in April, 1968 and caused a sensation.  David Davis wrote his 2002 paean, “Turn Your Hymnals to 2002” in the April 1968 Car and Driver, and the word was out.  A SOHC m10 engine, fully independent suspension, disk front brakes and 100 hp (113 SAE).  And it would outrun and outhandle almost every contemporary sports car (save 6 cylinder Porsches, XKEs and exotics) while wearing a two door sedan body with a big trunk and seating for four.  The rest, as they say, is history.  The 02 series put BMW on the map in the US—in a few short years taking the marque from unknown to The Ultimate Driving Machine—a niche it still occupies a half century later.  
  

Mike Self
BMW 1600 Cabriolet BMW 02 series are like the original Volkswagen Beetles in one way (besides both being German)—throughout their long production they all essentially look alike—at least to the uninitiated:  small, boxy two door sedans.  Aficionados know better.   Not only were there three other body styles—none, unfortunately exported to the US—but there were some significant visual and mechanical changes over their eleven-year production run.

I’ve extracted the information below from official BMW sources, unofficial sources and the collective memories of many 2002 fanatics.  Sources disagree on specific dates and equipment—even “official” BMW sources disagree among themselves.   BMW often did not wait until a model year end to introduce changes—many were made when the supply of old parts ran out during a production year.   Worse yet for the future automotive historian/ archivist, pictures in BMW’s sales literature were often of the previous year’s model; sometimes correctly touched up, sometimes not.  I’ve tried to make this as accurate as possible, but errors are inevitable due to incomplete documentation.   Anomalies exist on vehicles of known provenance.  Some beginning and end model year VINs are approximate and are so noted in italics.

And just to further muck things up, BMW lists their VIN runs by calendar year, not model year.  In the US, the model year generally runs from Sept 1 to the following August 31.  Thus, a model year 1973 car that was built in December 1972 (or September, October or November, for that matter) is a 1972 production car to BMW.  In the chronology below, I use model year VINs—some known, others extrapolated.  The latter are shown in italics.
 
BMW 1600-2 May 1965 Design code TP114 finalized for production as the 1600-2.
 
Dec 1965 First pre-production prototypes hit the test track
 
March 1966 1600-2 introduced on BMW’s 50th anniversary, and begins full production in April.  VINs begin at 1500001, runs through 1533857 at 1967 model year’s end.  No specific US model or separate VIN series; cars exported to the US have sealed beam headlights and the gauges speak English.  These early cars differ in many details—large and small--from the 1968 and later cars:  six-volt electrical systems, exterior trim, hub caps vs full wheel covers (with optional, square hole trim rings available), bright chrome trim on the dashboard, steering wheel, engine accessories.  Approximately 4300 sold in the US, mostly ‘67s.
 
Sept 1967 Specific US 1600 model production begins with VIN 1560001, and runs continuously through March 1971 to 1572930.   Recognition characteristics generally mirror those of the 2002.  A US-specific version (with its own 156/157XXXX VIN series) was required in order to meet the new Federal safety requirements mandated for all cars sold in the US.

1968 1600 characteristics—not all of which were implemented at the beginning of production:
12 volt electrical system replaces the previous 6 volt system, and an alternator replaces the generator
Mechanically activated clutch
No power brake booster
Non-reclining front seats
Standard OEM tires are bias ply 
Outside rear view mirror moved aft on door about three inches to clear vent window
Three spoke “safety” steering wheel replaces previous two spoke wheel with horn ring
Plastic surrounding the instrument faces painted black, vs previous chrome
 
BMW 1600ti Sept 1967 – BMW 1600ti introduced—dual sidedraft Solex carburetors boosted 1600 horsepower from 85 to 100. Upcoming US emissions standards precluded importing the 1600ti to the US; this leads to developing the 2002—a two-liter engine in the 1600 body.
 
Jan 1968 BMW 2002 (non USA) production begins with VIN 1650001.  
 
Jan 1968 BMW 1600 Cabriolet production begins with VIN 1557001; production continues through Jun 1971 and VIN 1558682. None exported to the US.
 
Feb 1968 US-specific 2002 production begins with VIN 1660001. A few early production models were actually assembled the previous fall for emissions testing and as press pool cars.  Approximately 2850 were built by the end of the model year production in Sept 1968. These models complied with US DOT and EPA regulations in place as of 1 January 1968.
 
 
First BMW 2002 Produced 1968 2002 characteristics:
First 300 cars have mechanically actuated clutches Early cars do not have sway bars OEM tires are radials; Michelin XAS optional Power brakes standard No front seat headrests; front seat backs about 1½ inches wider than later cars Shoulder harness seat belts (the infamous “spaghetti belts”) replaced lap belts used on pre-1968 1600s. Separate clutch and brake fluid reservoirs; brake reservoirs mounted on the master cylinder rather than remotely; clutch reservoir mounted on the inner fender well Two piston brake calipers Red-center tail lights Side grilles blacked out with paint; center grille bars black anodized Matte silver painted one-piece wheel covers replace the 1600 hubcaps with separate trim rings—some early cars had two piece hubcap/trim ring assemblies that resembled the later one piece wheel covers Tachometer, front and rear sway bars, reclining front seats, vinyl upholstery, bumper guards and chrome exhaust tip were “non-optional” options per Hoffman Motors  
Sept 1968 US 1969 model production begins. 1600 VINs begin at approximately 1565738; 2002 at 1662859. '02s assembled before 1 Jan 1969 are known as “first series” 1969’s, and are essentially identical to the 1968s. The post-1 January cars meet new EPA/DOT regulations that took effect on that date. These “second series” cars begin with VIN 1664761.
 
1969 “second series” characteristics
Short neck differential replaces long neck Rear axle shafts get CV joints inboard and outboard Four piston front brake calipers Single fluid reservoir mounted on left fender well serves brakes and clutch Headrests added to front seats Three-speed heater blower replaces two speed blower Decorative ribs added to the previously plain valve cover  
Mid-year changes (Mar/Apr 1969):
Ridges added to dashboard shelf Diaphragm clutch replaces coil spring clutch at VIN 1665201 Clutch pedal/linkage changed at VIN 1665201 5 blade “tropical” fan replaces smaller 4 blade fan on US models at VIN 1668338  
BMW 2002ti Sept 1968 BMW 2002ti production begins—similar to the 1600ti, it has dual side draft Solex 40 PHH carburetors, similar engine to the 2000CS coupe. Not for US market as it wouldn’t pass US emission requirements. 16,448 produced. Replaced by the tii in April 1971.
 
May 1969 US automatic production begins at VIN 2530001; about 1000 built in the 1969 model year. Automatics have clocks instead of tachometers.
 
Sept 1969 US 1970 model production begins at approximately VIN 1668756 for stick, 2531023 for automatics, 1569647 for 1600s. Again, not all the changes below were initiated at the quoted VINs.
Rear turn signal lenses changed to amber Front turn signal lenses bulge outward and use a single two-filament bulb Optional alloy wheels introduced; they have five slots divided by radial ribs and are 5x13 inch versions of the 14 inch CS coupe alloys. Initially offered on the ti models, they were not readily available in the US until the tii was introduced to the US market for the 1972 model year Silver paint eliminated on wheel covers, now polished stainless steel; valve stem now has its own dedicated round hole vs the small cutout used on the painted wheel covers. Front seatbacks narrowed Windshield wiper blades lengthened to 15 inches; previously 13 inches Outside rear view mirror enlarged at VIN 1671845 and 2532051 (automatics)—the “trapezoid” mirror Side grilles have black anodized appliques glued over the grille bars vs the black paint used on earlier 2002s.  
Sept 1970 US 1971 model production begins at approximately VIN 1676472 for stick, no automatics built for the US market in 1971. Those titled as ‘71s are most likely leftover 1970s. 1600 VINs begin at approximately 1571835
Rear side markers now illuminated; rectangular reflectors added to rear panel Tinted glass becomes available Heated rear windows become commonly available—switch incorporated into heater blower switch. US 2002s were all equipped with the leather-wrapped sport steering wheel—supposedly due to a fire or strike (take your pick) at the plant that supplied the standard “schoolbus” steering wheels “Metal loop” style front seat belts replace the “spaghetti belts” used on earlier cars.  
BMW 2002 Cabriolet Jan 1971 all 200 2002 cabriolet (convertibles) were produced; unfortunately none for the US market—save one “black swan” owned by Carl Nelson. VINs were 2790001 to 2790200
 
April 1971 the “modell 71” cars are introduced to the US market, midway through the US model year. VINs begin at 2570001 for the 2002, and 1572931 for the 1600. The last US 1600 was VIN 1573162. Changes include the following, but not all were implemented at 2570001, the beginning of modell 71 production.
Transmission synchros changed from Porsche to Borg Warner type. Rubber trim added to side sections of front bumper and the entire rear bumper Rear bumper ends lengthened Lower (“knee”) rubber side moldings added Instrument cluster updated; dial faces all black; tenths reading added to odometer Heater core, valve and hoses enlarged Console sides lengthened to surround shift lever; shift boot is now rectangular vs round Emergency flasher switch moved to console from far-left side of dash shelf; push button vs pull knob. Black painted front seat reclining mechanisms begin to replace the earlier chrome versions, but chrome brackets have been observed as late as early 1972 tii’s. Two-piece dashboard replaces the previous three-piece dash Fuse box now has twelve fuses vs previous models’ six Short gas tank filler neck replaces long neck at 2572070 Wiper motor given a plastic weather shield; transistorized wash/wipe relay replaces thermal relay.  
April 1971 BMW 1802 (2002 pistons, 1600 crankshaft) introduced—not for US market. Production continues until April 1975. BMW 2002tii production begins with Kugelfischer mechanical fuel injection—130 hp DIN vs 100 for the carbureted version. Would not appear on the US market until the 1972 model year.
 
BMW 1802 Touring April 1971 BMW 1600 touring (hatchback) body is introduced, followed shortly by two-liter versions, both carbureted and injected. The 1800 Touring was introduced in September. Early two-liter cars were badged as “2000 Touring” but later changed to “2002 Touring” to avoid confusion. Never imported to the US, supposedly because the importer, Max Hoffman didn’t want to stock the additional body and trim parts. “Modell 73” tourings were built, but retained the earlier cars’ round tail lights. Touring production ended in May 1974; 30,206 built.
 
May 1971 BMW 2002 Targa cabriolet production begins and continues through Dec 1975. Cars built after August 1973 have the plastic grilles and square taillights of the Modell 73. As with the conventional convertibles, Baur built the bodies. The Targa body style had a removable steel panel over the front seat and a folding cloth top/plastic rear window for the rear. Between them was a fixed steel “hoop” to provide rollover protection. Not imported to the US. 1,963 LHD and 354 RHD cabrios built.
 
Sept 1971 US 1972 model year cars begin production. VINs begin at approx 2576500 for stick, 2532126 for automatics. The US tii is introduced with 120 DIN hp; VINs run 2760001 through 2762629. Early cars (to VIN 2762014) had plastic intake runners. US cars didn’t get the 3:45 final drives of the Euro tii’s.
 
Changes to all ‘72s include:
Windshield wiper switch moved to right side steering column stalk; dash switch only controls speed Wheel width increase to five inches on the tii’s; carbureted cars continue with 4 ½ inch wide steel rims.  Five-inch-wide alloys are dealer installed options. Running production changes: Inertia reel seat belts replace the “metal loop” style and a seat belt warning light is added to center dash top at VIN 2580042 (2532126 for automatics and 2760235 for tii’s.) Side grilles slightly modified at VIN 2580165 (2532130 for automatics, 2760504 for tii’s.)  Headlight surrounds are shallower than previous grilles, and headlight retainers are symmetrical. Carbureted cars get a new cylinder head (E-12), sealed fuel pump and an intake manifold with a two-barrel automatic choke Solex carburetor, but not until late in the model year at VIN 2583405/3465 (2532752 for automatics.)  Tii’s switched to the E-12 head at VIN 2761944. With the E-12 head, emission controls were greatly simplified:  the air pump was eliminated; EGR valve was the primary emission addition.  
Sept 1972 US 1973 model year cars begin production at VIN 2585138 for carbureted cars (stick) and 2533173 for automatics.  The first ‘73 tii is 2762630.  Final VINs are 2593704, 2764521 and 2534861 respectively.  
 
Visual/mechanical changes include
Front bumper is moved further away from the body on much heavier brackets; front bumper guards are lower and pointed—the only year for these guards on US cars.  Rear bumper is moved about 2 ½ inches from the body on oval brackets covered with rubber covers. Suspension springs were lengthened to raise the bumpers approximately one inch thus complying with DOT bumper height regulations.   Plastic steering column surround replaces metal surround Heater blower switch moved to dashboard above temp control lever; all four heater control levers now illuminated Rear window defroster gets its own switch, not part of heater blower switch   Quarter window latches slightly modified at VIN 2587489—black plastic knob replaces chrome knob, and the C-pillar mounting screws have white plastic cover over them.  
Sept 1973 US modell 73 (actually 1974 model year) cars begin production with 4220001 for carbureted cars (stick); 4280001 for automatics and 2780001 for tii’s.  Ending VINs for the year are 4230601, 4283429 and 2782928 respectively.  Major facelifts fore and aft plus numerous interior changes make the ‘74-76 cars easily recognized from their earlier brethren. 
Front body panel revised with black plastic side and center grilles, black headlight surrounds  Rear body panel carries “square” tail lights with built-in reflectors, license plate lights mounted on a separate bracket  Heavy rubber-faced forged aluminum bumpers mounted on shock absorbing mounts front and rear add nine inches to the car’s length. Wheels are now styled with slots and a small, stainless steel center cap; width is standardized at five inches for carbureted and injected cars.   New optional alloy wheels; they’re referred to as “soup plate’ wheels due to their smooth, bowl-shaped centers.  Electric sunroof an “official” US option—but rarely seen Four spoke steering wheel with large padded center hub replaces three spoke wheel Dash now a one-piece molding Front seats have different shape, upholstery and reclining mechanism Instrument cluster surround covered with imitation wood panel; instrument faces changed Door panel upholstery design simplified Turn signal switch moved to the left side of the steering column; all windshield washer/wiper functions now on right column stalk.  An intermittent wiper control kit was a dealer-installed accessory. Carpet now one-piece molded vs eleven separate pieces Wiper arms/blades now black; previously silver  Infamous seat belt interlocks were installed, which prevent the car from starting until front seat belts were fastened in occupied seats.  Since system couldn’t distinguish passengers from grocery sacks, most were immediately disconnected.  
BMW 2002 Turbo Jan 1974 BMW 2002 Turbo production begins—again, not for the US—at VIN 4290001; approximately 1671 were built through June 1975.
 
April 1974 Luxus trim offered on non-US models—included some items that were standard on US models, plus rear seat armrest, velour upholstery, real wood trim on interior door panels and instrument cluster
 
Sept 1974 US modell 75 cars begin production with 2360001 for carbureted cars (stick); 2380001 for automatics.  The tii was discontinued.  Ending VINs for the year are 2367750 and 2382692 respectively. 
Tailpipe exits at center of rear panel vs right side The infamous thermal reactor was added to the exhaust manifold to help meet increasingly stringent emission standards.  The air pump also returned to the “smog” package.   The radiator fan received a shroud to enhance engine cooling, stressed by the thermal reactor.      Outside rear view mirror enlarged again (the “flag” mirror) Headrests have close-set mounting posts—rationalized with E21 seats Heat shield added between muffler and gas tank  
BMW 1502 Jan 1975 BMW 1502 introduced as an entry level BMW to keep customers who couldn’t afford or didn’t want the new E21 316.  Not for the US market.  1573 cc, 75 hp DIN; 72,386 LHD and RHD versions built.  
 
March 1975  BMW AG takes over distribution in North America from the Hoffman organization, creating BMW NA.  Some previously unavailable options (cloth interiors, electric sunroofs) become available.  
 
Sept 1975 US modell 76 cars begin production.  Stick shift VINs run 2370001-2380000 and 2740001-2745584. Automatic cars’ VINs: 2390001 to 2393292.  With the new E21 3 series in production for non-US markets, only the US version 2002 and the base model 1502 remained in production.
Final drive ratio raised from 3.64 to 3.90 to regain performance lost by increasingly stringent emissions requirements. To meet more stringent requirements, California cars receive a different emission control package from the “49 state” cars. E21 cylinder head replaces E12 Relay added to the ignition circuitry Wipers get a 5 second interval setting as standard; previously optional/accessory  
July 1976 the last US version 2002 leaves the production line.  Supposedly the last 200 US cars were painted Polaris Silver with red leather interiors, alloy wheels and electric sunroofs.  
 
July 1977 the final 1502 left the assembly line—the last ’02 series car in production
 

Conserv
Blauplunkt Frankfurt The Blaupunkt Frankfurt US was certainly the most common radio installed in U.S. '02's. This is a monaural unit. Other Blaupunkt models, especially the Frankfurt Stereo US, were also commonly employed. Intending no slight to other brands of radios installed in U.S. '02's -- Becker, Motorola, Grundig, etc. -- here's a summary of how to date and identify Blaupunkt radios of the era. Thanks This is borrowed from a thread commenced on September 3, 2013, entitled "Dating 2002-Era Blaupunkt Radios".
 
Above is a stock photo of a 1969 model Frankfurt US (Model 7639 670), used in the U.S. 1974 2002 brochure!
 
Blauplunkt Frankfurt I've noticed interest lately, on behalf of some forum members, in using period-appropriate Blaupunkt radios. This comes after decades of removing radios installed by the original dealers in order to install more modern, and generally better-sounding, radios and stereo systems.  What goes around, comes around. I personally am also curious about being able to date 2002-era Blaupunkts that lack their original paper labels.  Examining examples of Blaupunkt radios with labels enable us to do this.
 
Let's first descibe the Blaupunkt system for labelling radios of this era. A self-adhered paper label, generally placed on the right side of the unit, identified it by model name, model number, serial number, and country of manufacture (first photo below). Let's look at the details.
 
Blauplunkt Front Beginning, it would appear, in 1967, the 4th digit of the model number signified the model year of the radio ("model year" as contrasted to "year of manufacture"). Thus:
 
7637 XXX = 1967
7638 XXX = 1968
7639 XXX = 1969
7630 XXX = 1970
7631 XXX = 1971
7632 XXX = 1972
7633 XXX = 1973
7634 XXX = 1974
7635 XXX = 1975
7636 XXX = 1976
 
Blauplunkt Frankfurt Note: the "763" numbers immediately above are illustrative; not all model numbers begin "763." And not every model, e.g., Frankfurt, was available as a new or "refreshed" model each year.  New models were often introduced two or three years apart.
 
Moving on from the model year, a letter prefix for the serial number -- in a manner similar to that for Becker radios -- denotes the year of manufacture. By the dawn of the '02 era, 1966, Blaupunkt was nearing the end of an alphabetical series:
 
X = 1966
Y = 1967
Z = 1968
 
So they started over in 1969:
 
Blauplunkt Frankfurt Front A or B = 1969
B = 1970
C = 1971
D = 1972
E = 1973
F = 1974
G = 1975
H = 1976
J = 1977
K = 1978
 
Therefore, labelled Blaupunkts are easy to date. And labelled 1967-and-later radios actually bear two date indicators: first for the model year; second for the year of manufacture. And as is apparent below from two 1969 model Frankfurt US units, and from two 1975 model Frankfurt Stereo US kits, a model may have been manufactured well beyond its model year.
 
Blauplunkt Frankfurt Side The second and third photos below show two stacked Frankfurt US units.  The top, unlabelled unit, is a 1971 model Frankfurt US (763"1" 627 000, based upon an identically-labelled unit shown by JohnH elsewhere in this thread). The bottom is a 1969 model Frankfurt US (763"9" 670), manufactured in 1971 ("C" prefix to the serial number). But if you return to the first photo below, you'll see another 1969 model Frankfurt US (763"9" 670). But that example was manufactured in 1970 ("B" prefix to the serial number). The fourth and fifth photos below show two stacked 1975 model Frankfurt Stereo US Kits (763"5" 421 012).  The top unit was manufactured in 1975 ("G" prefix to the serial number) and the bottom unit was manufactured in 1976 ("H" prefix to the serial number).
 
The last two photos below, i.e., the sixth and seventh, show probably the last German-manufactured U.S.-spec radio of the '02 era, a 1976 model Frankfurt Stereo US Kit (763"6" 421 012).  This example was manufactured in 1978 ("K" prefix to the serial number), and I've not yet seen an example manufactured in 1976, but I'm confident a few are out there.
 
Many facets of the faceplates and pushbuttons changed over time. The blue dot or point (as in "blau punkt") appeared and later moved during this period. The "Blaupunkt" name shifted locations. The number of station numbers represented, along with the actual choice of station numbers, transitioned over time. "Stereo" changed from vertical to horizontal.
 
Blauplunkt Frankfurt Pushbuttons moved from black with white letters to black with silver and black applied labels. And then they came up with the clunky "combined" AM/FM buttons of the 1976 model. The FM scale went from a reverse orientation -- higher numbers on the left, lower numbers on the right -- to a more expected low-to-high orientation. (FM scales that end at 104 rather than 108 signify European versions: the European countries use a slightly narrower FM range.) The spacing of the scales' call numbers changed.  And there were more changes, no doubt, such as to the size of the housings.
 
Feel free to add photos of Blaupunkts, along with their identification labels, below.
 
Thanks and regards,
 
Steve C.

BritshIron
Understanding the Open Rear Bulkhead Design Features Essential for the Application of Primer Coatings Using Anodic Electrophoretic Deposition on The Early BMW Neue Klasse Sedans and the BMW 02 Series
 
This article offers some explanations for specific design features of the 1960s and 1970s BMW Neue Klasse four-door sedans and 02 Series sedans. The features most closely scrutinized include the open design of the rear bulkheads in early Neue Klasse (NK) cars, triangular cutout holes in solid bulkheads of the early 1600-2 02 Series sedans, and various bulkhead and box metal holes in the trunk areas of all NK and 02 Series sedans. The article seeks to explain the design features that enhance the anodic electrodeposition coating process. The author’s comments are specific to the four-door BMW Neue Klasse Sedans, and the BMW 02 Series which are defined as the BMW’s two-door sedans, including the 1600-2, 1602, 1600ti, 2002, 2002ti, 2002tii, 1802, and 1502 models. 
 
Authors
Robert P. Smith, @BritshIron BMW 2002 FAQ, USA 
Nelson K. Akafuah, Ph.D., Univ. of Kentucky 
Adnan Darwish Ahmad, Univ. of Kentucky 
 
Overview
During the 1950s and into the early 1960s, entire car bodies were being immersed in vats of primer paint along the assembly line. At first, solvent-based primers were used, which caused environmental hazards and even explosions. For a relatively brief period in the history of automotive primer coating, a water-based primer was used during vat dipping. However, the process still relied on simple gravity to get the primer coated on all parts of the automobile body shell. By the mid-1960s, BMW was using a type of primer coating which utilized electrophoresis in an electrochemical process that would soon be the standard for automotive protective coatings.  
 
In the early years of the BMW Neue Klasse cars, the first years of the 02 Series 1600-2 and 1600ti, and the entire remainder of the 02 Series through 1977—these sedans had some holes and openings in the rear bulkhead (the metal partition behind the rear seat back separating the passenger cabin from the trunk space) as well as holes in other parts of the trunk space. There are very few written documents which explain the purposes of these factory design features, and (thus far) no definitive oral history. This article explores the various rear bulkhead types in these early cars. It explains how these openings enhance what BMW called at the time “Electrophoretic immersion bath” or simply “Electrophoresis.” The process is called by many other names, including electro-coating, electro-painting, electrodeposition, and electrophoretic deposition.  Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is the process where specially formulated primer paint is applied after the phosphate pretreatment of the metal substrate to promote long term corrosion resistance. For the anodic EPD process, the metal body shell carries a positive charge, and a uniquely formulated primer resin carries a negative charge. Thus small paint particles are attracted under electrical influence to a positively charged workpiece (the vehicle). The paint forms an insulating film on the metal, which provides a chemical and physical barrier to prevent corrosion. This paint insulation spreads uniformly to otherwise inaccessible areas of the body, and the distance of such spread is known as “throw power.” Adequate primer coating is highly dependent on open pathways for dispersal of pretreatment liquids and primer throughout the body shell, voltage applied to car body and primer, the paint bath temperature, bath non-volatiles, and vehicle duration (immersion time) in the bath. After immersion, time and temperatures in a drying oven are also critical to the process.
 
Assembly Line Pretreatment of the Metal Substrate Before the Electrodeposition Process
For optimum protection of the body shell, it imperative to properly prepare the metal surface for the EPD process. The pretreatment allows for a more uniform primer layer. It is chemically driven and in multiple stages, including the following steps: Hot Water Rinsing, Degreasing, Surface Conditioning, and Phosphating Processes. 
 
Other critical process parameters are monitored continuously in the pretreatment bath, including the incoming metal quality, water quality, vehicle immersion time, turnover rates, rinse impingement, and surface flow. Adequate liquid filtration is essential throughout the pretreatment stages to maintain excellent corrosion protection and optimal surface quality. The goal of the pretreatment is to have an optimal phosphate crystal structure and coverage on the metal substrate, getting the car ready for electrochemical primer coating. The authors wish to note that these pretreatment steps also require enough adequate openings in the automotive shell so that pretreatment liquids can reach all portions of the body.
 
The Anodic Electrophoretic Deposition Process of the 1960s
Anodic EPD technology, introduced in the early 1960s, is an efficient and relatively simple operation with a high degree of automation. The anodic EPD process was subsequently replaced by cathodic technology in the 1970s, the latter which has set new standards in EPD processes and corrosion protection that extends to this day.  By 1970, 10% of all vehicles worldwide were electrocoated. By 1990 this had risen to 90% of all vehicles, and today it is by far the most commonly used vehicle coating process (Ansdell, 1999). The liquid primers used in the EPD are often called “electropaints.” Red primers were derived from iron oxide, and grey primers from titanium oxide, mixed with carbon black and yellow iron oxide.  In the case of BMW, the company apparently switched from red primer to grey primer sometime around the middle of 1966. Up until 1977, all electropaints used in the automotive industry were of the anodic type, primarily because the resin chemistry was relatively simple, readily available, and adaptable to the needs of the auto industry.  In this process, the car was the anode. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the anodic EPD process. The EPD process was reported in great detail by Fettis (Fettis, 1995); a summary is presented here for convenience. A portion of the great success of EDP in the automotive coating process is attributed to throw power. Throw power is a sophisticated yet essential property that defines the ability of an EDP process to deliver primer coating to more remote and harder-to-reach areas. Optimum throw power can depend on a number of technical factors, including pigment volume concentration (which affects film resistance), non-ohmic conductance, rupture voltage, coulomb yield, and neutralizing species type. It is worth mentioning that the typical throw power of the anodic EPD process is about 12-15 cm, while it’s 25-35 cm for the cathodic EPD. The furthest the distance coated and the thickest the film, the better the throw power is.
 

Figure 1 Schematic of the anodic electrodeposition process (Adopted from Fettis 1995)  
The anodic process had some deficiencies. The two primary weaknesses were phosphate disruption and poor saponification resistance. Note, saponification is a process by which triglycerides are reacted with sodium or potassium hydroxide (lye) to produce glycerol and a fatty acid salt called soap. The best EPD results include resistance to saponification. During the anodic EPD, very high electrical field forces occur, which rupture many of the metal-phosphate bonds (called phosphate disruption). This leads to a weakening of the adhesion of the phosphate coating to the steel substrate. When subsequent paint coats are applied, stresses are set up in the entire paint film, which, when such damage gets to bare metal, tends to cause the entire paint film to curl away from the damage point. In early anodic systems, as soon as corrosion started at any point of damage, the weakened phosphate layer allowed the paint to peel back, exposing more metal, which was chemically clean and very prone to corrosion. This failure was designated ‘scab corrosion.’ This undesirable property was improved by reducing the incidence of rupture of phosphate bonds by merely increasing their number, i.e., modifying phosphate coatings with densely packed, fine phosphate crystals. Such dense phosphate coatings are of low coating weight, and their introduction led to a marked reduction in the incidence of ‘scab corrosion.’ The chemistry of many early anodic primers was characterized by the use of acid resin chemical systems; therefore, poor saponification resistance was inherent in these electropaint primers.
 
As a consequence, the deposited cured primer film (based on acid resins), when exposed to an alkaline environment, will tend to form metal soaps soluble in water. When damage occurs to bare metal, caustic salt will simultaneously attack the steel substrate and the electrocoat film, producing rust and the sodium salt (soap) of the anodic resin. This dissolves the primer coating, leading to a loss of adhesion of the remaining paint film and general corrosion problems (Ansdell, 1999).
 
Electrophoretic Deposition Design Features in BMW Sedans of the Early 1960s
Early 1960s BMW sedans (which introduced the now iconic C-pillar “Hofmeister kink”) began with the Neue Klasse (NK) 1500 sedans, introduced in Frankfurt Motor Show in 1961. 
 
Figure 2 Neue Klasse BMW of the late Sixties taking a dip in the EPD primer bath. Photo: Schrader (1979) "BMW, A History"  
These four-door sedans included the NK 1500 (1962-1964), NK 1800 (1963-1968) NK 1600 (1964-1966), and the NK 2000 and variants (1966-1972).  Figure 2 shows a later Neue Klasse sedan in the electrophoretic immersion bath. A photo of the rear bulkhead of a 1963 NK 1500 appears below, the green car (Figure 3). Note the two, vertical oval bulkhead cutouts on each end of the partition, and the rather large, more square openings in the center of the bulkhead. The authors believe this open rear bulkhead design helped facilitate dispersal of pretreatment liquids, as well as primer during the vat dipping process. Similarly, the small hole at the top of the wheelhouse arch is likely a “vent and drain” hole that allows the primer-related liquids to enter the box metal, and also promoting a means for air trapped in the box metal to escape. Also, note the vertical, pressed grooves in the sheet metal on either side of the oval cutouts, as well as in the center dividing metal. The oval cutouts have rolled metal edges. All these intricate pressings and punching of the flat metal is done to give the sheet metal the strength and rigidity needed for such an important structural application. It also appears that this bulkhead relies on five separate metal parts to form the skeleton of the bulkhead partition. Finally, BMW installed a trim board on the rear seat back side of the vehicle as a finishing feature. An early Neue Klasse sedan in the assembly line process after final paint is shown in Figure 4. The open design of the rear bulkhead can be clearly seen against the contrast of the trim board. Note the center metal stanchion separating the two largest open areas, and giving some strength to the mid-sections of the bulkhead. 
 
Figure 3 Rear bulkhead and wheelhouse of 1963 Neue Klasse 1500. Arrows indicate oval cutouts. The circle at the “vent and drain” box metal hole. Star in large bulkhead opening. Photo courtesy of BMW 2002 FAQ Figure 4 Neue Klasse on Assembly Line. The arrow at center metal divider of bulkhead frame. Photo: BMW Group Archive  
Sometime in 1964, the rear bulkheads in these NK cars changed from the framed-up cutout design to a solid bulkhead. The trim board was moved outboard of the solid bulkhead, so the trunk had a very finished look. Figure 5 shows a photo of the solid bulkhead with the trim board not yet installed, so you can see a pressed design very similar to what will soon become the familiar rear bulkhead pressing of the 02 Series cars.
 
At the Geneva Auto Show in March 1966, BMW introduced the first of the company’s new 02 Series, the 1600-2. (“2” was to signify two doors, and a way to distinguish this new model from the four-door NK 1600). From the very first 1600-2 in March 1966, as well as early 1600ti cars, there were unique cutouts, die cut from the pressed sheet metal design on either side of the rear bulkhead. These cutout “triangles” remained in the design until approximately the end of November’s production, 1967. 
 
Figure 5 Later Neue Klasse Sedan with Solid Rear Bulkhead. Photo: BMW Group Archive  
After that, the bulkhead returned to the solid form in all 02 Series cars, except for a much smaller hole (25 mm), drilled into the solid triangular pressed bulkhead design that had previously been cut out of the 1600-2 cars. Regarding the cars with triangular cutouts, the factory covered these cutouts with acella film (think translucent plastic sheeting) during final fit and finish procedures. Figure 6 shows the inside trunk of a grey car with the factory acella film installed. Note the black wire and the wiring chase at the top of the wheelhouses, this hole goes through to the cabin of the car. At least one additional hole is present on the box metal forming part of the wheelhouse arch in the trunk of all 02 Series cars, from the first 1966 1600-2 to the last 1502 in 1977. These holes were oval shaped and uncovered (Figure 7). 
 
The authors believe BMW designers purposefully included open bulkhead designs in early NK sedans, and the triangular cutouts in early 1600-2 cars, as a way to ensure pretreatment liquids and primer during vat dipping were distributed (as much as possible) throughout the car body. 
 
Figure 6 Early1600-2 rear bulkhead with acella film installed. Arrows point to acella film covering triangular cutouts. Photo: Anders Bilidt Figure 7 Oval wheelhouse box metal hole and triangular cutout in a 1967 BMW1600-2. Circle at “vent and drain” box metal oval hole. Arrow points to wire chase penetrating the bulkhead. Star in triangular cutouts that allow for primer distribution and air bubble release during electrophoresis primer immersion. Photo: Robert P. Smith  
Other holes in box metal components accomplished the same purpose. Drain holes in the spare tire well were similarly intended to provide adequate drainage of primer liquids, similar to the large drains in the cabin floor of the bodies. Holes cut by the factory in the rear package shelf (some call “rear deck, parcel tray, or hat tray”) also allowed for the passage of liquids associated with the primer process, as well as avenues for air bubbles to escape during vat immersion (See Figure 8). These holes in the rear parcel tray were present for the entire production run of the 02 Series, 1966-1977. 
 
Figure 8 Factory drilled holes in the parcel shelf of a 1600-2 made in September 1967 helped to disperse liquids associated with the EPD process, and air bubble escape passages during immersion dipping. Photo: Robert P. Smith  
Such holes, openings, drains, and cutouts provided (1) physical access for all liquids associated with the primer process to flow to all areas of the body, and (2) “vent and drain” opportunities for excess primer products and trapped air to exit the car body during the primer coating process. When electrophoretic immersion was added as part of the primer application process, these various openings became all the more important to assist with throw power requirements  of EDP in order to get primer into normally inaccessible areas of the car body, and air bubbles out while the car was being immersed.
 
The authors offer two points of reference that could shed light on the emphasis BMW placed on this relatively new EDP process in marketing the early  NK and 02 Series cars. Regarding both the Neue Klasse and 02 Series cars, the YouTube video below depicts the NK/02 Series production line, courtesy of the BMW Group Archive. A full two minutes or more of a 14-minute production documentary is devoted to the electrophoresis process, and how much that process helps the quality of the paint on the finished car.  
 
 
The second point of reference can be found in early BMW 02 sales brochures (Figure 9 and 10), again touting the electrophoretic immersion bath with words like “All the inaccessible corners and edges of the body, outside reach for normal painting, are also covered with anti-corrosive filler.” Note the BMW shown on this brochure is an early 1600-2, with the triangular bulkhead cutouts and covered with red iron oxide primer.    
 
The photo and text of this brochure exemplify how BMW can get paint to all the nooks and crannies during the vat dip, demonstrating the throw power of the new EPD primer process at the time. Note the sales brochure in Figure 9 is dated May 1968, but the 1600-2 photo is from an earlier car using red primer. The second brochure (Figure 10) is from August 1968 and features a later 02 Series car in grey primer, with the smaller, 25mm holes in the rear bulkhead. The sales brochure in Figure 10 was captioned "Electrophoresis"
 
Why did these early rear bulkheads finally take on a solid design? For the 02 Series, The Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards Act went into effect on January 1, 1968, and mandated solid rear bulkheads as a safety measure to separate the cabin area from the fuel tank on cars. For the Neue Klasse cars, the first impetus to do away with the open rear bulkhead and replace with a solid bulkhead may have been a part of an earlier United Nations agreement which also spoke to fuel safety and cars. 
 
Many European countries, including Germany, were signatory to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe framework, first signed in March 1958. Parts of this agreement, as amended, cover approximately 147 technical regulations on vehicle safety and environmental concerns. Among the subjects covered are mandatory partitions that separate the passenger compartment from the fuel tank, and standards which limit fuel drip into the passenger cabin under crash conditions.
 
Figure 9 A portion of a May 1968 sales brochure touting E-Coating for BMW 1600-2. Photo courtesy of BMW 2002 FAQ Figure 10 Page from a BMW sales brochure from August 1968 showing rear of 02 . Photo courtesy of BMW 2002 FAQ  
Given that the agreement allows signatory countries to implement the terms of the UN agreement at various times, it may have been that Germany decided to implement the solid barrier separation between the cabin and fuel tank in 1964. In Europe, this rule is often referred to as the ECE 34 Regulations. The USA never signed the above referenced UN agreement, but rather adopted its own vehicle safety standards, as did Canada. The end result was the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards Act, effective January 1, 1968, mandated the solid rear bulkhead to separate the cabin from the fuel tank area (trunk) in a similar fashion to the earlier UN agreement for European cars. All “US spec” or “Federalized” BMW 1600-2 cars, titled as 1968 models and sold mostly through US dealerships such as the Max Hoffman Corporation, were supposed to have solid rear bulkheads. It’s unclear how many BMW 1600-2 cars, made between September and November of 1967, made it to the US as 1968 Federalized cars with the triangular cutouts in the rear bulk-heads. However, it is believed that no US “Federalized” 1600-2 made after November 1967 had the triangular bulkhead cutouts, nor did any 2002, 1802, 1502—no 02 Series car after approximately November 1967.  
 
Indeed, the final chapter to this “holes in the rear bulkhead” story goes to BMW 02 Series cars made from December 1967 until the end of production.  The authors believe every one of these hundreds of thousands of cars (1502, 1602, 1802, 2002, excepting any “Specials” like the Baur cars) had holes drilled in the very same rear bulkhead panels that had been removed in the early 1600-2 cars. In other words, just because some regulations called for diminishment of early, larger “vent and drainage “ triangular openings for primer dispersion and air bubble escape, it looks like BMW did not give up on the notion of having some way to disperse primer to remote areas of the car’s shell,  as well as have holes to allow air bubbles to escape during the EPD immersion dipping process. For paint dispersion, it looks like the holes are positioned to make sure paint gets in the inaccessible cable chases at the top of the wheelhouses (where wheelhouse meets bulkhead) and along welding points. These smaller holes in the bulk-head may also have served to supplement larger air escape holes that the factory placed in the rear package shelf (Figure 8).
 
In a manner similar to the acella film closure finish treatment of the triangular cutouts, these 25mm holes received automotive hole plugs at the end of the assembly line. Some of the plugs in the early cars were very obvious and stood proud from the plane of the bulkhead, as shown in the Figure 11. In other instances (perhaps beginning in 1973 or so) the holes are almost flush with the bulkhead from the trunk side. BMW may have started inserting the automotive hole plugs from the seat back side, or perhaps these are just impressions of holes that the die cutter made but did not quite cut through-and-through. Some owners report no holes at all, but this seems to be rare. Nevertheless, these holes (or vestiges of the holes) stayed in the same triangular press design as was once removed in the early 1600-2 cars and remained until the end of production of the 02 Series. Like the triangular cutouts before them, these holes are placed under the rear package shelf, and may be strategically placed in an area where trapped air bubbles can escape during the immersion dip. If air bubbles are not allowed to escape during the immersion of the car shell in primer, the spots where the bubbles persist will not be adequately covered by primer during e-coating.
 
Figure 11 Later 02 Series car with automotive hole plug. Arrow points to automotive hole plug installed after painting. Photo: BMW 2002 FAQ  
As stated above, some holes in the body seem to be designed not only to take in primer, but also to drain primer and expel bubbles after immersion. Examples of these holes are the round holes drilled near the top of the wheelhouse box metal surround on the early Neue Klasse cars (see Figure 3), and the similar, oval shaped holes drilled in every 02 Series car, in the box metal of the wheelhouse arch surround (see Figure 7). Similar holes finished with automotive hole plugs can be found in the spare tire well of all 02 Series cars, presumably for primer drainage. Large holes placed by the factory in the rear parcel shelf are also examples of openings for primer dispersion and air bubble escape (Figure 8).
 
Conclusions
As one BMW Group Archivist said regarding the purpose of the triangular cutouts, “This is probably one of those things that are lost in time…” However, with some perseverance, a really good circumstantial case can be made for the open rear bulkhead designs, and various holes in the bodies of these early cars being directly related to the application of primer, whether by gravity dipping or EPD technology. The authors believe that EPD primer processes were fully engaged at the Munich-Milbertshofen factory by the mid-1960s, and that use of anodic EPD technology spread to other BMW plants in the following years.
 
One of the first stops along the way is to see exactly when BMW actually adopted anodic electrophoresis as part of the primer application process. Figures 12, 13, and 14 below, came from the BMW Group Archive. Figure 12 is entitled “BMW electrophoretic dip painting Dip Booth (left) and Drying Oven (right)”. Figure 13 is subtitled “BMW Electrophoresis” and both are dated 1962. This would seem to correspond with the roll-out of the first production Neue Klasse 1500 in 1962. Figure 14 is entitled “Post processing of BMW 1500 after immersion, 1962”. The open rear bulkhead design, and “vent and drain” holes in the wheel housing box metal arch, would seem to be design features for both dispersal of primer to remote interstitial areas (relying too on the extra “throw power” of electrophoretic primer application to get to inaccessible areas of the car’s shell), and holes to open pathways for adequate venting of air bubbles attendant to the immersion process. All of the above notwithstanding, the BMW Group Archive was unable to confirm that the 1962 date on Figures 12, 13, and 14 was an actual date marking the beginning of electrophoretic primer coating, so it could be EPD came to BMW a few years after 1962.
 
Close examination of period photos from the paint shop portion of the production line of early 02 Series sedans would seem to yield similar evidence that the bulkhead holes were related to electrophoretic primer coating. Figure 15 shows an early 02 1600-2 in the foreground of the electrophoretic immersion bath, with a Neue Klasse car ahead in line. Note, in the photo what appears to be an electrical cable coming out of the center rear window opening and into the trunk space. 
 
Figure 12 BMW electrophoretic dipping and drying booths, 1962. Photo: BMW Group Archive Figure 13 BMW electrophoretic dip painting, 1962. Photo: BMW Group Archive Figure 14 Post processing of BMW 1500 after immersion, 1962. Photo: BMW Group Archive Figure 15 An early 1600 2 entering the immersion bath labelled “BMW cars of 02 series and “Neue Klasse” during electrophoretic dip. 1966. Photo: BMW Group Archive  
Final Thoughts and Disclaimers 
The BMW Group Archive could not (with absolute certainty) verify the dates on some of their photographs, even though the dates are on the photos in their archives. Worst case scenario is that the photos of early electrophoresis plant at the Munich-Milbertshofen factory are a bit later than 1962. This would mean that early Neue Klasse cars could have been primer coated in vats and with paint designed for the gravity adhesion process and not the electrophoretic immersion process.
 
The authors also wish to note that car design often occurred years ahead of assembly line mass production. Since these early 1960s BMW cars were produced at a time when solvent-based and water-based primers utilizing gravity dipping were fading out of the industry, and electrophoretic immersion priming was emerging as the preferred technique, it is possible the newer priming technique simply caught up with an older car design meant for earlier primer techniques. The open bulkheads in early NK cars, and rear bulkhead cutouts of the early 1600-2 sedans, could be vestiges of a design meant to accommodate gravity dipping primers, not electrophoretic dipping. Either way, the authors believe the open construction of the early Neue Klasse cars, and the triangular cutouts in the early 1600-2 cars, are related to design requirements for primer dispersion and air bubble venting (regardless of whether gravity dipping or electro-phoretic deposition primers were used). 
 
Acknowledgements 
The authors wish to thank many people who contributed to this, including a number of people who were contacted through BMW 2002 FAQ. We appreciate your thinking and the photographs contributed for this article. Also thanks so much to Albrecht Walloth of WallothNesch.com, who explained the European laws governing solid rear bulkheads to the writers. Thanks to Chris Bangle, former design chief for BMW, who did not know the answers, but gave a great quote: “Holes are expensive.” Thanks also to Mike Macartney, author of BMW ’02 Restoration Guide, who addressed only the triangular cutouts, but wrote to say “My thoughts are that BMW started off with the cutouts for the reasons you give and then found that there was no need to cut out the sections.” Thanks to Andreas Harz from the BMW Group Archive who wrote several times, but in the end said “This is probably one of those things that are lost in time but if I find something I will tell you.” Big thanks to Ruth Standfuss of the BMW Group Archive, who tirelessly searched for pictures and documents regarding historical records of BMW’s electrophoresis primer endeavors. Thanks to Peter Hope of LVH Coatings Ltd. in the UK, who provided valuable insights as to the triangular cutouts possibly serving as connection points for electrodes, as drain holes for the out-put and input of primer, and the smaller holes being classic venting and draining holes for box metal features. 
 
Any and all comments are welcome.
Thank you. 
 
References 
Ansdell, D. A. (1999). Automotive paints. Paint and surface coatings: theory and practice, 431-489. 
Fettis, Gordon, ed. Automotive paints and coatings. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim (Federal Republic of Germany)& VCH Publishers, New York, NY (USA), 1995. 
Schrader, H. (1979) BMW, A History. Automobile Quarterly Inc.
 
About the Authors 
Robert P. Smith is a long time sports car fancier and is retired in Hawaii. He has collected and maintained antique sports cars as a hobby for over fifty years. Robert can be reached by personal messaging under the user name @BritshIron through the website BMW 2002 FAQ
 
Dr. Nelson Akafuah is the Associate Director of the Institute of Research for Technology Development, Univerisity of Kentucky. He is the author of both books and scholarly-refereed journals, including “Evolution of the Automotive Body Coating Process--A Review. “ Dr. Akafuah can be reached at 
[email protected]
 
Adnan Darwish Ahmad is a Ph.D. candidate in the Mechanical Engineering Department at the University
of Kentucky and is under the tutorage of Dr. Akafuah. He is the author of multiple scholarly-refereed
journal articles focused on painting and coating technology. Adnan can be reached at 
[email protected]

steve k.
It is imperative to use proper torque on all of the bolts on your car. For your convenience all the specs have been compiled technical manual and sorted as it would be in the BMW 2002 Service Repair Manual.  Data is provided in Newton meters (Nm), meter kilopond (mkp), and pound foot (lb.ft). 1 Nm = 0.102 mkp = 0.738 lb.ft
 
Please, use a high quality torque wrench to achieve good results.
 
Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3
 

24 - Automatic Gearbox (Transmission)   Tightening Torques       Nm mkp lb.ft Stud in transmission housing     5 - 6 0.5 - 0.6 3.6 - 4.3 Hexagon nut, stop sleeve     15 1.5 10.8 Headless screw on accelerator cable     15 1.5 10.8 Hexagon nut for parking lock     10 1 7.2 M10 X 1 locking bolt in transmission housing     15 1.5 10.8 Converter housing and transmission extension     23 2.3 16.6 Starter locking switch and reverse light switch     35 3.5 25.3 M18 X 1.5 locking bolt in converter housing     35 3.5 25.3 Hexagon head bolt on support shaft     10 1 7.2 Hexagon head bolt for fastening oil pump     10 1 7.2 Hollow bolt for inflow and return pipes     40 - 45 4.0 - 4.5 28.9 - 32.5 Speedometer bush locking bolt     10 1 7.2 Hexagon nut on bearing flange and transmission extension     23 2.3 16.6 Cheese-head bolts on centrifugal governor M5   6 0.6 4.3   M6   10 1 7.2 Collar nut on output side     100 - 120 10 - 12 72.3 - 86.7 Hexagon nut for fastening converter housing     23 2.3 16.6 Hexagon bolt for fastening control unit     8 0.8 57.8 Hexagon bolt for fastening oil sump     10 1 7.2 Oil drain plug     35 3.5 25.3   26 - Propeller shaft (Drive shaft)   Tightening Torques       Nm mkp lb.ft Propeller shaft without sliding section           Universal joint to final drive     68 + 8 6.8 + 0.8 49 + 5.8 Propeller shaft or "Guibo" coupling to manual gearbox - M10 bolts     68 + 8 6.8 + 0.8 49 + 5.8 Propeller shaft or joint disc to manual gearbox - M10 bolts     43 + 5 4.3 + 0.5 31 + 3.6 Propeller shaft or joint disc to autotragic transmission - M12 bolts     105 + 13 10.5 + 1.3 76 + 9.4 12 - sided nut (with Loctite AVV)     180 + 2 18.0 + 0.2 130 + 1.4 Center bearing to body     22 + 2 2.2 + 0.2 15.9 + 1.4 Heat shield to center bearing (US version)     11 + 2 1.1 + 0.2 8.0 + 1.4             Propeller shaft with sliding section           Universal joint to final drive     30 + 5 3.0 + 0.5 21.7 + 3.6 "Guibo" coupling at gearbox     43 + 5 4.3 + 0.5 31 + 3.6 Threaded bushing on sliding section     40 4 29 Center bearing to body     19 + 5 1.9 + 0.5 14 + 3.6             Propeller shaft with joint discs           Joint disc     42 + 5 4.2 + 0.5 30 + 3.6 Threaded bushing on sliding section     40 4 29 Center bearing to body     19 + 5 1.9 + 0.5 14 + 3.6             31 - Front axle Tightening Torques       Nm mkp lb.ft Spring strut, top center (nut securing insert to upper strut mount)     72 + 8 7.2 + 0.8 52 + 6 Spring strut, screw ring (gland nut)     120 +/- 20 12.0 +/- 2.0 87 +/- 14 Spring strut, thrust bearing (upper strut mount) on wheel housing (fender)     22 + 2 2.2 + 0.2 16 + 1.4 Track rod arm (Pitman arm) at kingpin (strut housing)     25 + 8 2.5 + 0.8 18 + 6 Wishbone (control arm) at axle beam (subframe)     170 + 20 17.0 + 2.0 123 + 14 Trailing link at wishbone (control arm) and at axle beam (subframe)     70 + 20 7.0 + 2.0 51 + 14 Steering box at front axle beam (subframe)     43 + 5 4.3 + 0.5 31 + 4 Front axle beam (subframe) to engine mounting     43 + 5 4.3 + 0.5 31 + 4 Front axle beam (subframe) to frame rail (chassis)     43 + 5 4.3 + 0.5 31 + 4 Guide joint (ball joint) at track rod arm (Pitman arm)     60 + 10 6.0 + 1.0 43 + 7 Brake caliper to kingpin (strut housing)     80+ 15 8.0 + 1.5 58 + 11 Brake disc to wheel hub     60 + 7 6.0 + 0.7 43 + 5 Track rod (tie rod end) castellated nut     35 + 5 3.5 + 0.5 25 + 4 Stabilizer (anti-sway bar) retaining bracket     22 + 2 2.2 + 0.2 16 + 1.4 Lock nut for stabilizer at wishbone (anti-sway bar end link)     22 + 2 2.2 + 0.2 16 + 1.4             32 - Steering Tightening Torques       Nm mkp lb.ft Steering wheel nut M12 X 1.5   55 + 5 5.5 + 0.5 40 + 3.6   M14 X 1.5   85 + 10 8.5 + 1.0 61 + 7 Joint disc (steering flex disc) attachment     20 + 3 2.0 + 0.3 14 + 2.2 Joint flange (steering flex disc flanges) attachment     25 + 3 2.5 + 0.3 18 + 2.2 Steering arm at steering box     120 + 20 12.0 + 2.0 80 + 14 Castellated nut at steering guide arm     80 + 20 8.0 + 2.0 58 + 14 Steering box end cover retaining bolts     18 + 2 1.8 + 0.2 13 + 1.4 Track rod (tie rod) castellated nut     35 + 5 3.5 + 0.5 25 + 3.6 Steering box to front axle carrier (subframe)     43 + 5 4.3 + 0.5 31 + 3.6 Track rod (tie rod) clamp bolts     12 + 3 1.2 + 0.3 8.7 + 2.2 Track rod arm (tie rod end) to kingpin (strut housing)     25 + 8 2.8 + 0.8 18 + 5.7  
Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3

steve k.
It is imperative to use proper torque on all of the bolts on your car. For your convenience all the specs have been compiled technical manual and sorted as it would be in the BMW 2002 Service Repair Manual.  Data is provided in Newton meters (Nm), meter kilopond (mkp), and pound foot (lb.ft). 1 Nm = 0.102 mkp = 0.738 lb.ft
 
Please, use a high quality torque wrench to achieve good results.
 
Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3
 

11 - Engine     Tightening Torques       Nm mkp lb.ft             Engine (block) to gearbox (transmission) M8   25 - 27 2.5 - 2.7 18 - 19.5   M10   47 - 51 4.7 - 5.1 34 - 37 Cylinder head bolts           The following procedure should be followed on all repair work where torquing of the cylinder head bolts is required. Values presented are for M10 motors only. Torque   60 6.0 43   Waiting time   15 minutes 15 minutes 15 minutes   Torque angle   33° 33° 33°   Valve clearance adjustment - - -   Warm-up running: time to run engine to coolant temperature of 185°F to 205°F (85°C to 95°C) 25 minutes 25 minutes 25 minutes   Torque angle   25° 25° 25° Main bearing caps     58 - 63 5.8 - 6.3 42 - 46 Big end bolts 12.9 DIN 267     52 - 57 5.2 - 5.7 38 - 41 Flywheel to crankshaft     100 - 115 10.0 - 11.5 72 - 83 *Fit in with Loctite Type 270 and Activator N           Timing chain tensioner end plug     30 - 40 3.0 - 4.0 22 - 29 Rocker clamp bolt     9 - 11 0.9 - 1.1 6.5 - 8 Presure relief valve plug on oil pump housing     25 - 30 2.5. - 3.0 18 - 22 Oil drain plug     60 - 65 6.0 - 6.5 43 - 47 Full-flow oil filter (throwaway element) with engine cold     24 - 26 2.4 - 2.6 17 - 19 Clutch to flywheel     22 - 24 2.2 - 2.4 16 - 17.4 Oil sump to engine block and timing case cover     9 - 11 0.9 - 1.1 6.5 - 8 Hollow screw for oil line to camshaft     11 - 13 1.1 - 1.3 8 - 9.4 V-belt pulley on cranshaft     140 - 150 14.0 - 15.0 101 - 108 Spark plugs     25 - 30 2.5 - 3.0 18 - 22 Fuel pump     10 - 14 1.0 - 1.4 7.2 - 10 Carburetor on intake manifold     10 - 14 1.0 - 1.4 7.2 - 10 Upper and lower timing cover bolts M6   9 - 11 0.9 - 1.1 6.5 - 8   M8   23 - 27 2.3 - 2.7 16.6 - 19.5 Water pump to timing cover bolts M6   9 - 11 0.9 - 1.1 6.5 - 8   M8   23 - 27 2.3 - 2.7 16.6 - 19.5 Upper to lower timing case cover     9 - 11 0.9 - 1.1 6.5 - 8 Distributor flange at cylinder head M6   9 - 11 0.9 - 1.1 6.5 - 8   M8   23 - 27 2.3 - 2.7 16.6 - 19.5 Hex nut for exhaust manifold to cylinder head     30 - 33 3.0 - 3.3 22 - 24 Heat-sensitive valve     15 1.5 11 Eccentric at rocker     9 - 11 0.9 - 1.1 6.5 - 8 Heat-sensitive time switch     20 - 25 2.0 - 2.5 14.4 - 18 Oil pressure contact switch     30 - 35 3.0 - 3.5 22 - 25 Reversing light switch     6 - 10 0.6 - 1.0 4.3 - 7.2   13 - Fuel Supply     Tightening Torques       Nm mkp lb.ft Cap nut on fuel injection pump     25 2.5 18.1 Fastening nut for toothed belt sprocket on injection pump     30 - 40 3.0 - 4.0 21.7 - 28.9 Injectors     30 - 35 3.0 - 3.5 21.7 - 25. 3 Fuel injection pump oil filler plug     15 - 18 1.5 - 1.8 10.8 - 13.0 Head screw on injector     25 - 30 2.5 - 3.0 18.1 - 21.7 Carburettor to intake manifold     10 - 14 1.0 - 1.4 7.2 - 10.1 Fuel pump to cylinder head     10 - 14 1.0 - 1.4 7.2 - 10.1 Idle shutoff valve     2.5 - 3.0 0.25 - 0.30 1.8 - 2.2   17 - Radiator     Tightening Torques       Nm mkp lb.ft Radiator cap and drain plug     9 - 11 0.9 - 1.1 6.5 - 8.0 Hollow bolt for supply and return pipes at converter housing     40 - 45 4.0 - 4.5 28.9 - 32.5 Supply and return pipes at oil cooler     12 - 15 1.2 - 1.5 8.7 - 10.8             21 - Clutch     Tightening Torques       Nm mkp lb.ft Clutch to flywheel     22 + 2 2.2 + 0.2 15.9 + 1.4 Pipe and hose at master and slave cylinders     13 + 3 1.3 + 0.3 9.4 + 2.2 Master cylinder retaining bolts     22 + 2 2.2 + 0.2 15.9 + 1.4 Clutch pedal through-bolt     32 + 4 3.2 + 0.4 23 + 2.8 BMW 1600-2 mechanical clutch only)"}' style="padding:2px 3px 2px 3px; vertical-align:bottom"> Locknut for thrust rod / throwout arm (BMW 1600-2 mechanical clutch only)     17 + 3 1.7 + 0.3 12.3 + 2.2 Nut on ring bolt for tension spring/pedal     7 + 1.2 0.7 + 0.12 5.1 + 0.9  

23 - Manual Gearbox (Transmission)   Tightening Torques       Nm mkp lb.ft Gearbox to engine M8   25 - 27 2.5 - 2.7 18.1 - 19.5   M10   47 - 51 4.7 - 5.1 34 - 37 Output flange     100 10 72.3 Sealing flange     10 1 7.2 Cap bearing on crossmember (rubber bushing) M8   22 - 24 2.2 - 2.4 16 - 17.4   M10   43 - 48 4.3 - 4.8 31 - 34.7 Crossmember at body     22 - 24 2.2 - 2.4 16 - 17.4 Strut mounting at gearbox     22 - 24 2.2 - 2.4 16 - 17.4 Mounting on gearbox     20 - 25 2.0 - 2.5 14.5 - 18.1 Strut at selector arm     22 - 24 2.2 - 2.4 16 - 17.4 Housing cover     25 2.5 18.1 Rubber mount / crossmember     25 2.5 18.1 Bracket     25 2.5 18.1 Oil drain plug     60 6 43  
Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3

steve k.
It is imperative to use proper torque on all of the bolts on your car. For your convenience all the specs have been compiled technical manual and sorted as it would be in the BMW 2002 Service Repair Manual.  Data is provided in Newton meters (Nm), meter kilopond (mkp), and pound foot (lb.ft). 1 Nm = 0.102 mkp = 0.738 lb.ft
 
Please, use a high quality torque wrench to achieve good results.
 
Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3
 

33 - Rear Axle     Tightening Torques       Nm mkp lb.ft Large final drive (differential) cover     43 + 5 4.3 + 0.5 31 + 3.6 Flange on bevel pinion (min)     150 15 108 3-arm flange (long-neck differential) with Loctite Avv (min)     150 15 108 (Differential) Side cover     20 + 4 2.0 + 0.4 14 + 2.9 Hex bolt in drive flange (differential output flange)     90 + 10 9.0 + 1.0 65 + 7.2 Stop nut at bevel pinion bearing (long-neck differential) (max)     400 40 289 Rear axle shaft castellated nut (secures rear wheel hub to stub axle)     400 + 70 40 + 7 289 + 51 Crownwheel at differential casing with Loctite Type 270     85 + 15 8.5 + 1.5 61 + 11 Halfshaft at drive flange (differential output flange)     30 + 3 3.0 + 0.3 22 + 2.2 Halfshaft at rear axle shaft (stub axle)     30 + 3 3.0 + 0.3 22 + 2.2 Rear axle beam (subframe mount) to body floor     140 + 15 14.0 + 1.5 101 + 10.8 Cross-member (differential carrier) at body floor     45 4.5 33 Thrust links to body floor     43 + 5 4.3 + 0.5 31 + 3.6 Final drive (differential) to rear axle beam (subframe)     72 + 8 7.2 + 0.8 52 + 5.8 Rubber mounting (differential support) to body floor     49 + 5 4.9 + 0.5 35 + 3.6 Final drive (differential) to rubber mounting (differential carrier)     49 + 5 4.9 + 0.5 35 + 3.6 Semi-trailing arm at axle beam (sbuframe)     67 + 8 6.7 + 0.8 48 + 5.8 Base of shock absorber     49 + 5 4.9 + 0.5 35 + 3.6 Rubber mounting (subframe mount) at rear axle beam (subframe)     49 + 5 4.9 + 0.5 35 + 3.6   34 - Brakes     Tightening Torques       Nm mkp lb.ft Brake caliper to steering knuckle     80 + 15 8.0 + 1.5 58 + 11 Brake disc to wheel hub     60 + 7 6.0 + 0.7 43 + 5 Brake hose     13 + 3 1.3 + 0.3 9.4 + 2.2 Collar screws on brake pipes     13 + 3 1.3 + 0.3 9.4 + 2.2 Brake servo holder at wheel arch     22 + 2 2.2 + 0.2 16 + 1.4 Brake backplate to semi-trailing arm (with Loctite)     60 + 7 6.0 _ 0.7 43 + 5 Brake relay lever at pivot mount     49 + 5 4.9 + 0.5 35 + 3.6 Locknut for brake arm pullrod     14 + 3 1.4 + 0.3 10.1 + 2.2 Brake master cylinder/brake servo retaining nut     13 +2 / -1 1.3 +0.2 / -0.1 9.4 +1.4 / -0.7 Brake caliper halves BMW 1600-2, 1602, 1802, 2002, 2002 A, touring 1602/1802/2002/2002 A"}' rowspan="1" style="padding:2px 3px 2px 3px; vertical-align:bottom"> BMW 1600-2, 1602, 1802, 2002, 2002 A, touring 1602/1802/2002/2002 A 27 - 4 2.7 - 0.4 19.5 - 2.9   BMW 2002 TI, 2002 tii, touring 2002 tii"}' rowspan="1" style="padding:2px 3px 2px 3px; vertical-align:bottom"> BMW 2002 TI, 2002 tii, touring 2002 tii 55 - 10 5.5 - 1.0 40 - 7.2   BMW 1502"}' rowspan="1" style="padding:2px 3px 2px 3px; vertical-align:bottom"> BMW 1502 34 - 4 3.4 - 0.4 25 - 2.9 Castellated nut for brake drum drive flange     400 + 70 40 + 7 289 + 51 M6 adjuster nut for handbrake cable     1.6 + 0.2 0.16 + 0.02 1.16 + 0.14 M6 locknut for handbrake cable     6 + 1 0.6 + 0.1 4.3 + 0.7   35 - Pedals     Tightening Torques       Nm mkp lb.ft Clutch pedal dowel pin     32 + 2 3.2 + 0.2 23.1 + 1.4 Pedal support fastening bolt Left-hand drive   43 + 5 4.3 + 0.5 31.1 + 3.6   Right-hand drive   49 + 5 4.9 + 0.5 35.4 + 3.6 Lock nut for brake pedal pul rod     14 + 3 1.4 + 0.3 10.1 + 2.2 Angular support for brake servo on metal sheet     22 + 2 2.2 + 0.2 15.9 + 1.4 Lock nut for thrust rod/clutch release     17 + 3 1.7 + 0.3 12.3 + 2.2 Fastening nut for ring bolt on tension spring/clutch pedal     7 + 1.2 0.7 + 0.12 5.1 + 0.9 Angular support for brake servo     22 + 2 2.2 + 0.2 15.9 + 1.4 Relay lever on brake pedal bearing block     49 + 5 4.9 + 0.5 35.4 + 3.6             36 - Wheels and Tires     Tightening Torques       Nm mkp lb.ft Wheels nuts or studs     81 + 8 8.1 + 0.8 59 + 6  
Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3

Schickentanz
On June 14th and 15th 1975 a BMW 2002 took on the greatest endurance race in the world.  For the full story please see 'A BMW 2002 Takes on LeMans'  in the History and Reference section of Articles. 
 
 

Setting off for the fuel economy run, which was a complicated prerequisite for qualifying in '75.  Note the extra lights have not been installed yet. 
 
 



On the starting grid on Saturday afternoon. It was a hot summer day. 
 


 


On the grid just before the start.  Note the high intensity rear red fog light and twin tanks.
 
 
 

In the paddock before the sponsor decals were added.  The TS sticker on the door indicates the 'Touring Special' class. 
 
 
 




steve k.
There were not many variations of BMW 2002 engines that came off the factory floor in Munich 40 years ago, but over the years, people have made some changes, and some things have remained the same.  Here is a collection of the types of engines and inductions you would be able to find in a BMW 2002 at your local car show.  
 
This is what things are supposed to look like
 
1.6L M10 with Solex Single Barrel Water Choke Carburetor on a BMW 1600

 
2L M10 with Solex Single Barrel Water Choke Carburetor on a BMW 2002

 
2L M10 with Solex Two Barrel Carburetor

 
2L M10 with Kugelfischer Mechanical Fuel Injections (Early)

 
2L M10 with Kugelfischer Mechanical Fuel Injections

 
2L m10 with Dual Solex Sidedraft Carburetors (2002ti)

 
M10 with a Factory KKK Turbo and Kugelfischer Mechanical Fuel Injection

 
Engine Bay After work done by a Tuner prior to the initial sale
 
M10 With Alpina A4 Intake

 
Engine Bays with Aftermarket Induction
 
Carburetors
 
Weber Downdraft

 
Weber Sidedraft 

 
M10 with 36mm Mikuni Motorcycle Carburetors

 
M10 With Lynx Manifold and Single Sidedraft Carburetor

 
Fuel Injection
 
M10 With BMW Electronic Fuel Injection from an e21 320i

 
M10 With BMW Electronic Fuel Injection from a 1979 e21 320i

 
Individual Throttle Body Fuel Injection

 
M10 With BMW Electronic Fuel Injection from an e21 320i and a Turbo

 
Engine Transplants
 
BMW m20 6 Cylinder Engine

 
BMW Euro m20 6 Cylinder Engine

 
BMW s14 4 Cylinder Engine

 
Honda f20c Engine

 
 
...And something fun
 
Cardboard Engine

 
 
I would love to add more to the list, so if you have a similar style photo of something that is not listed, please add it to the comments.

Seb
INTRODUCTION
The present parts catalogue replaces the catalogue issued up to now for the models 1602 to 2002 Tii Touring. All changes made until the time of printing are included. You will be informed by supplement of the changes occurring afterwards.
 
This catalog contains all parts for the models 1602 to 2002 Tii Touring. The division into main and sub-sections has remained the same.
 
The divisions of the main and sub-sections has been changed in view of the introduction of the microfilm parts catalogues to be expected in the future.
 
We recommend to carefully study the instructions for use. Only this will enable yo to take full advantage of this information material for your work.
 
VOL 1 Part 1 Pages 1 - 121  BMW-1602-1802-2002-Parts-Catalogue-Vol1_Part1.pdf
VOL 1 Part 2 Pages 2 - 242  BMW-1602-1802-2002-Parts-Catalogue-Vol1_Part2.pdf
 
VOL 2 Part 1 Pages 1 - 100  BMW-1602-1802-2002-Parts-Catalogue-Vol2_Part1.pdf
VOL 2 Part 2 Pages 101 - 200  BMW-1602-1802-2002-Parts-Catalogue-Vol2_Part2.pdf
VOL 2 Part 3 Pages 201 - 300  BMW-1602-1802-2002-Parts-Catalogue-Vol2_Part3.pdf
VOL 2 Part 4 Pages 301 - 393  BMW-1602-1802-2002-Parts-Catalogue-Vol2_Part4.pdf
 
 
Have fun
Buy me a coffee
 
 

Seb
Hi,
this is the complete original BMW catalogue Vol 2.
It took a while, my scanner got too hot after scanning about 30 pages and needed a break every time.
 
Its very interesting I think.
Uploading or sending a single xxl file maybe a problem because of my wireless internet connection here so I've attached the pdfs in the order as I scanned them.
 
I hope you can merge them together and split them in a few parts.
 
It starts from 009 to 017 and then the last one is IMG_20190205_0001.
 
Thank you for your work
Sebastian
 
----
Have fun
Buy me a coffee
 
 
IMG_20190204_0012.pdf
IMG_20190204_0013.pdf
IMG_20190204_0014.pdf
IMG_20190204_0015.pdf
IMG_20190204_0016.pdf
IMG_20190204_0017.pdf
IMG_20190205_0001.pdf
IMG_20190204_0009.pdf
IMG_20190204_0010.pdf
IMG_20190204_0011.pdf

yeewiz
The following 238 photographs are of the 1972 BMW 2002 Polaris with 4530KM from Oldenzaal Classics.  The VIN is 3605457.  The source of this article originates from the post by Swiss 2002Tii:
 
 
The back story of this car to be posted later.
 
Here are the first 40 pictures, the maximum number allowed per post, in the original downloaded resolution:
 










 
 










 
 









 
 










 
 
 

zinz
I've searched around and haven't seen a thread dedicated to the initial steps of resurrecting a 2002 that has been sitting/abandoned/undriven/unstarted for many years. (if there is such a thread, please link it here).  There are the 100 tips which are helpful, but somewhat dated  https://www.bmw2002faq.com/forums/topic/41562-light-reading-a-few-tips-myths-lies-truths-and-other-c/#comment-668762
 
 
For years we have seen new members appear with a car they've just bought and no experience on how to or where to start.  Most times, these threads receive lots of good advice on how the newbie should proceed, but then those threads become lost and we have to start the whole conversation over again. There are basic steps a new owner can proceed with to insure his new project doesn't bog down and I'd like to see a thread that catalogs those tips; starting here.  
 
Please feel free to add comments and direct tips to previous threads or, of course, the Articles Section for specific procedures  https://www.bmw2002faq.com/articles.html/technical-articles/
 
As an example, we have a few new members with early cars in various states of condition and the questions usually start with " what should I do first?"
 
I usually suggest the following.
 
Prep yourself with the basics:
Learn how to search FAQ ( this Article is old, but seriously folks, figure it out)  https://www.bmw2002faq.com/articles.html/faq-use/how-to-use-search-r171/ Buy a Haynes Manual and spend an evening reading through it so you'll know where to find the info when you need it Equip your toolbox with the best tools you can afford (proper screwdrivers, metric wrenches, flashlight, telescoping magnet, feeler gauge set, etc...) Use jack stands every time you are under the car Have patience and a sense of humor  

 
You just pushed it off the trailer into the driveway and the wife is "thrilled"...now what?
Clean it up...nothing kills motivation faster than a car that looks like crap Vacuum the inside of all the mouse droppings, dirt, leaves, pine needles, blunts, stems and seeds... Wipe down all the vinyl and glass Clean the engine bay...this may take several days of concerted effort, old greasy buildup won't surrender easily, but a clean engine is sooooo much more pleasant to work on Clean the outside...air up the tires, wash and wax it. Washing by hand will allow you to see loose trim, missing screws, cracked window seals, etc...   

Step back and envision what it will look like when you are done.
Take stock of what is on the car and what is missing.  Make a list and prioritize the project's needs. (should you buy a $500 Petri wheel when the engine doesn't even run yet?) Take good pictures of the engine bay, suspension, whatever it is you are working on.  It can save you from an "oh crap" moment when you're not sure how something goes back together Compartmentalize your goals to keep from being overwhelmed and know that these projects take time to complete.  Expect delays when parts you need are not available locally and it'll be a week before your web order will arrive. Spend the downtime addressing some other part of the project; but always accomplish something; even if it's simply zip-tieing loose wires under the dash; or maybe you can paint those rusty steel wheels?  
For a car that hasn't run in a while.... fix the brakes and steering before you go anywhere
Jack it up as high as you can and place it on jackstands Before removing the wheels, check for excessive play in the wheel bearings Remove wheels and inspect every brake component. Bleed the brake/clutch hydraulics. Any wheel that doesn't bleed easily indicates that a soft line or wheel cylinder, or caliper needs replacing. If it leaks, repair/replace Learn how to adjust the rear brakes and emergency brake...so simple and so important (Haynes manual has a good instructions as does the FAQ) Repack any bearing that displayed excessive free-play (just do them all for peace of mind) Inspect all suspension components for worn/cracked rubber bushings.  If it's loose, plan to replace it Old, cracked tires? replace them  13" Kuhmos are what.. $50/each? Is the exhaust rotted out? Is it hanging loose? Always change all fluids unless the PO has good records that he'd recently done it, but double check. Any oil or lube that you drain that is milky or strangely discolored, may indicate water contamination... Not good in any circumstance Here's a good lube link https://www.bmw2002faq.com/forums/topic/99316-lube-specifications/#comment-276758 Engine oil and filter - you can't go wrong with 20w-50 with ZDDP additive ( I like Valvoline Racing oil) and a Mann or Mahle filter Transmission fluid - drain it and replace with Redline MTL, or 85/140 mixed 2:1 with ATF, or straight 80W dino-lube Differential fluid - drain it and replace with Redline 75/90, or 85/140 dino-lube  
Fuel system
If the car has been been sitting a very long time, unplug and remove the sending unit, drain the gas tank, and inspect the inside of the tank for rust  Change the fuel filter Check fuel line hose clamps and replace any rubber fuel line that shows any sign of cracking, or leaking. Not entirely necessary, but you can remove the top of the carb to check for gunk/debris in the fuel bowl which may give an indication of future running problems You could also remove the idle jets and blast them with carb cleaner for good measure Does the car have a mechanical fuel pump or an electric fuel pump? Inspect that it is functioning properly.  
Engine
Remove the valve cover and inspect the valve train, looking for broken valve springs, rockers, etc... Is there a lot of sludgey-oil build up? If you can turn the engine over, perform a valve adjustment https://www.bmw2002faq.com/articles.html/technical-articles/engine-and-drivetrain/valve-adjustment-for-bmw-m10-motor-r27/ It has been recommended for engines that have sat for many years that you pull the plugs and give each cylinder a shot of lubrication... some say diesel fuel, or ATF, or engine oil.  You are basically trying to lube the cylinder walls prior to turning the old engine over. Use the FAQ search to find out what you think works best for you. With the valve cover off, set the engine to TDC per the mark on the camshaft and paint your timing marks on the lower pulley and/or the flywheel (check the Haynes manual for these locations.) You WILL thank yourself later when you are setting the timing with a timing light. With the engine at TDC also confirm the static timing of the distributor.( Again the Haynes manual has description and pictures in the Ignition Section). This will insure that the initial startup goes well.  
Ignition
Replace plugs with new ones... NGK BP6ES seems to be the crowd favorite, or Bosch W7DC.  Gapped accordingly... 0.025 with points, or about 0.030 with electronic ignitor like Petronix Inspect distributor cap and rotor for cracks. If you have points and condensor, install new and gap/dwell accordingly. Check distributor shaft for excessive axial play (up and down)...worn shaft will make for erratic timing and poor running...something to think about once you are tuning the car up. Check plug and coil wires.  Replace them if cracked Inspect wiring at coil.  All connections should have tight, crimped, spade connections.  If anything has loose, electric tape...inspect it and replace with proper connections. This goes for ALL wiring. Any wiring you find with wads of electric tape should be suspect.  
Start the engine
With a fresh battery (with good cables and clean connections), fresh gasoline, fresh oil and fresh ignition components... turn the key and crank the engine. If you've done all the prep work, hopefully it fires up! if not, you can start troubleshooting more easily now that you know you have replaced, set tolerances, and checked each item ahead of time.  Is there spark?  Is there fuel?  
Cooling system
Drain radiator and block, remember to open the heater valve (turn the dash lever to hot).  The block drain is located on the passenger side of the block, behind the exhaust manifold, below the #3 and #4 exhaust ports... if I remember it's a 17mm bolt. If you remove the bolt and nothing comes out, it's blocked by old, crystalized coolant.  Poke it with a stubby screwdriver or wire to clean it out. You must drain the block, though. Refill cooling system with 50/50 antifreeze and distilled water.   The 2002 is notorious for developing an air bubble in the cooling system after draining the system. When refilling, elevate the front of the car, leave the radiator cap loose and squeeze the upper radiator hose to insure there are no air bubbles.  All this while the engine is running.  
 
This is certainly not a comprehensive list but I hope it helps those looking for a way to get started on their new projects.  There are so many topics and tips... I hope others will chime in with their favorites; like cleaning all the grounds and light bulb connections because the blinkers don't work.
 
Have a great weekend,

Ed Z
Cedar Park, Texas
 
 
 
 

Schickentanz
Tour D'France Automobile Rallye
 
 

Factory M12-engined  rally prototype.  The sister car won TS title at '75 LeMans.
 

1969 Rallye Monte Carlo.
 
 




Spa Francorchamps, Belgium
 
 




Rallye of Poland
 









Hockenheim test day
 

Rallye of Ireland
 
 

84 Hour race at Nürburgring
 
 

Start of the 24 hour race at Nürburgring, Germany.  June 1972.
 

Nürburgring 24 hour race 1972.  Keeping up with the first AMG race car, the 6.8 liter V8 'Red Sow'. 
 
 


1975 24 Hours of LeMans
 

Endurance race driver change at Hockenheim.
 

1966 Rallye Monte Carlo
 

1970 World Cup Rally.  London to Mexico City. 
 

Tour D'France Automobile 1971.   Dirand at the wheel. 
 
 
 

On the way to Touring Class victory at the '75 24 Hours of LeMans. 
 
 
 

Coupe des Alpes Rallye
 
 

Albi, France 1971
 
 
 

Monthlery, France 1971.  2002s finish 1,2,3 in 'Groupe 1'.  
 
 
 

Rallye Bordeaux Sud-Ouest 1971,  Gourrin drove his ti to 4th overall.  Note the photo is printed backwards.
 

1971 Rallye De Touraine, France.  Depnic in a 2002ti. 
 
 

The Greek Rally Acropolis, 1972.  In a publicity stunt, all cars competed on Sears white wall tires. 
 


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