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Found 19 results

  1. my '76 was running rich, replaced coil, resister, plugs, wires, cap, rotor, solenoid points etc carb was replaced with same model 38 Weber with addition of the phenolic spacer prior while running rich it pulled strongly thru the rpm's and gears no complaint other than it stank like gas all the time now it seems to have areas at the top of the rpm range where it feels like it has no more to give. not sure how else to describe it was tuned by a knowledgeable foreign shop with timing light and afr gauge in the tail pipe I am at a loss as how to proceed I spent alot of money and while it now does not stink and boil off the gas and it starts much easier it seems to have now as much power as before any ideas suggestions help?
  2. Hi, everyone! I know that this subject is something many of the posts on this forums are about - but after searching, reading and using many hours collecting information, I now want your feedback on this specific build. My plan with this thread, and something I hope will help the 02 community, is also to collect the comments and remarks you give in the opening post, so future newbies like me can use it in the planning of their build. After owning my 1975 2002 for some years I now want to make some upgrades to the engine, after the old one seized last summer. At that time i had just recently upgraded the ignition, and done a complete rework of the suspension and brakes. In the continuation of that I want to build a engine corresponding to the current suspension setup - a hot street car, ready for sunny days on winding roads, and occasional track use. So far, my setup, both the engine and the suspension, is affected by trial and error. I have base my choices on information found on various forums, and my base knowledge has not always been as good as it should before making a decision. In short; Lacking the needed knowledge to find a good balance between the components. To your information my future plans are based on the setup Korman uses on their stage 2 engines. The engine parts I have as of today: - Bosch red coil: I know this coil is debated, and several would probably suggest to go for the blue coil in stead. That might be my choice as well if the recommendations in this thread favores it. - 1.8 ohm ballast resistor: Need to go over the circuit diagram again, as the ballaster gives me some issues. The ground connection might be wrong. - Tii distributor: Alternative, 123ignition w/ bluetooth when its available? This makes me wonder about a electronic ignition like the MSD-6A - is this, or similar, something is should consider either way? UPDATE: The 123ignition seems likely to be the solution I choose. Selling the Tii distributor. - 8mm spark plug wires: OK - Weber 45 DCOE: I know, these are big and might be to big for my build. Had I done the purchase today I would have bought the 40DCOE instead. Found them at a good price, and had to little patience at the time. What I hope to be able to do, is to choke them down and make them work. This is a budgeted build, and I would like to avoid the expense of buying new carburetors, if possible. - IE stage 2 headers: OK. Planned setup: - Forged pistons: 10.5:1 CR. Correct me if I'm way out on this! The fuel I use is 98 octane. UPDATE: Good reasonable argument for choosing 10.1:5 CR instead. What triggered me is the argument about wider tuning range. - Piston rods: Stock. - Camshaft: Schrick 292 deg UPDATE: More likely to choose the KM Cams 290. The reason being minimal changes in specs, at a much lower price. - Valve springs: KM Cams double springs. Local shop. - Valves: Stock. UPDATE: Going to stay stock. Price vs. reward. - Rocker arms: KM Cams steel rockers. Local shop. - Engine mounts: Heavy duty rubber. The urethane mounts makes the car shake like a mad washer. Picture of my car: What are your thoughts? Modification, 22.01.16: Editorial changes. Modification, 22.01.16: Added updates based on feedback
  3. Once again I'm finding different streams of thoughts about tuning, in my case, dual Weber 40 DCOE carbs using the Cannon 2 piece intake manifold. I've been advised by several folks that I need to install a balance tube between the two manifolds while on the other hand I'm told that it would be of no benefit. I've tried the Google search option and haven't found a whole lot of information so I'm wondering if possibly folks here might lend a hand at contributing whatever knowledge they might have on the subject. Frist, do I need to add a balancing tube to my manifolds in order to tuning easier and get better performance out of my carburetor setup. Or, am I better off replacing the 2 piece Cannon manifolds with a single piece manifold? I've spent several hours now investigating this without finding a good source of information to influence me one way or the other. We're trying to tune the car and having some difficulties with rough ideal and running (2,000 to 3,000 RPMs), and hesitation on acceleration. Any information will be greatly appreciated as to the need to add balance tubes. And, if the tubes are necessary what is the specifications (e.g. diameter of tube, locations of connections on manifolds, soft or ridged tubing, etc.) for the installation.
  4. Hello all. Before I start I just want to say that this site and its members have been extremely helpful to my father and I. We greatly appreciate everything this site has helped us with. Last summer my father and I Bought a 1974 bmw 2002 tii with intentions to finish restoring it mechanically over the summer. Sadly after many problems we went able to finish. Now it is summer again. The car is running but not well. We have changed the oil. oil filter, plugs, plug wires, fuel pump, air filters, and cleaned the fuel system. At this point the car is idling high. We have tried messing with the tuna can for hours but the car is still idling high. We need help. We need someone who has experience restoring these engines to help us get it running right. If someone could come to our house and help us we would be happy to pay for your services. We live in the Bethesda Potomac area near seven locks elementary. Please let me know if you can help us.
  5. Hello all. Before I start I just want to say that this site and its members have been extremely helpful to my father and I. We greatly appreciate everything this site has helped us with. Last summer my father and I Bought a 1974 bmw 2002 tii with intentions to finish restoring it mechanically over the summer. Sadly after many problems we went able to finish. Now it is summer again. The car is running but not well. We have changed the oil. oil filter, plugs, plug wires, fuel pump, air filters, and cleaned the fuel system. At this point the car is idling high. We have tried messing with the tuna can for hours but the car is still idling high. We need help. We need someone who has experience restoring these engines to help us get it running right. If someone could come to our house and help us we would be happy to pay for your services. We live in the Bethesda Potomac area near seven locks elementary. Please let me know if you can help us.
  6. Hey guys so problem I recently rebuilt my engine from the bottom up and and anyone would be you'd be excited but alas when you do something you want it close to perfect. From my knowledge my specs are a e12 head millled down now twice slightly oversized pistons from stock don't remember how much a 292 cam from IE IE shorty headers a original tii distributor and a 3838 carb everything else is basically stock do not know the exact compression feels like it has about 150 HP MY DILEMA the car runs really rich taking off from first gear is so harsh and on idle until it warms up feels like a V8 Under the hood runs really rough basically my mechanic has told me that tuning the carb hasn't done much he has told me that a MSD box should solve the problem saying it would allow more spark and calming down idle etc. i just want some other opinions and help and ask any opinions ? All I read is the cars run super rich mostly with a 3838 Weber and rarely see any info on msd boxes and wonder if this will really solve the problem any feedback is useful thank you!!!! heres a video thank you IMG_4708.MOV
  7. Looking for DCOE tuning advice from some of the masters- I just finally got around to installing a wideband setup in my 02, and I've gotten a generally good power tune jetting set up installed. It sounds rich based on what I've seen others posting, but so far this is what has worked best for me: Basic engine info: 90mm 10:1 bathtub pistons Port matched 121ti head 292 cam Stahl headers Cannon manifolds Spanish DCOE 151 40mm carbs 33mm chokes 4.5 aux venturies 65f8 idle jets 125 main jets 160 air correctors f11 emulsion tubes 40 pump jets 55 exhaust valves It's idling nicely at 12.5:1 afr Accelerates smoothly at 12.5 afr Burbles around town at 12.5-13.8:1 afr Cruising at 75mph and 4000rpm is too rich at 11.8 afr WOT over 5500 and it starts to lean out towards 16:1 afr. I'm feeding it 92 e10 pump gas. My question is this: Cruising at 75mph and 4000rpm, the throttle is barely open. As in, the throttle plate is in the range of the progression circuit. Everything I've read about tuning webers describes the various fuel circuits in regard to rpm, and not throttle position. For example, statements such as "By 3000 rpm the carbs are running fully on the mains." But if I'm cruising at 1/10th throttle at 4000rpb, surely the progression circuit is coming into play and contributing fuel to the mix, no? Going to a 120 main jet leans things out a bit too much, and 60f8 and 60f9 idle jets both resulted in an excessively weak progression circuit mixture (16:1, 18:1). It this a problem I can solve through jetting, or are the progression circuit drillings on my carb bodies just wrong enough that I need the overly fat idle jet to compensate for them, resulting in too much contribution from the idle jet at cruise? Maybe a 5th gear would change my cruise rpm enough to get out of the mains and solve my symptom, if not my problem? Are the emulsion tubes a factor at that engine speed? Any thoughts are appreciated, my jetting budget is getting thin...
  8. Howdy! My car - 1976 49 State - passed CA smog! Woo! Okay now let's make it purr. The engine right now likes to ping / pop when I decelerate from 4,000 rpms to ~3,500 rpms. I put in 93 octane gas, but it still happens. I have a 32/36 Weber (not sure on the jet sizes yet) and I have an electronic ignition. The distributor cap was changed and I have new spark plugs. So! A few questions: Should I attempt any tuning while the smog equipment is attached? Or will that disrupt the balance? What was likely done to make it pass smog that killed performance? I figured they would've leaned out a bit too much (hence pinging)? What is the order of operations for general tuning? Distributor Timing? -> Idle screw? -> Enrichener screw? Floats? -> Measure jet sizes? Possible gotchas? I need to check all the vacuum hoses are sound and that contacts are solid. I am reading all the articles I can find, but none found so far that address what they would've done to help pass smog. Thanks!
  9. This is the continuation of the Megasquirt/EDIS installation article found here (which I apparently ran out of article room in): This article will focus specifically on how to tune an EFI installation on your 2002. It will focus on Megasquirt as the example (since that is what I installed on my car and thus am most familiar with), but the general process is still applicable to other type of EFI setups. Note: Before you ask, no, I will NOT share my actual *.msq files. That's a great way for an amateur to screw up their engine by 'just trying.' I will however share and explain screenshots of the parameters that I use in my car. It is then up to YOU to understand this and use the information to build up your own parameters. I have traditionally used Megatune but have just recently been trying out TunerStudio Lite, so you will see screenshots from both pieces of software in this write-up. Section VII - Tuning Contents: 1.) Engine parameters 2.) Cranking and Starting 3.) Warmup 4.) Idle 5.) Acceleration enrichment 6.) Speed-Density vs. Alpha-N and the VE table 7.) EGO and AFR table 8.) Spark advance table 9.) Datalogging and tuning So you finally have Megasquirt (or another EFI) hardware installed on your 2002 and all wired up. But there's still more work to do before you try to crank the car up for the first time! Let's first double check that you didn't miss anything and have all of the prerequisites for loading up your first tune: A.) All hardware is installed (manifold, throttle body, fuel rail, injectors, fuel filter, fuel pump, O2 sensor, coolant sensor, intake air temp sensor, throttle position sensor, fast idle circuit, and if applicable, EDIS hardware). B.) All wiring is correct, hooked up, and SAFE (e.g. right size wiring, fused, etc.) C.) Megasquirt controller boots properly, has firmware loaded, and can communicate with your tuning laptop (via Megatune, Tunerstudio, etc.) So basically make sure everything is installed, wired properly, and you have proper communication to the EFI controller. A great first test of things in general is that when the Megasquirt unit is first powered up, it should briefly run the fuel pump for 2-3 seconds in order to prime and pressurize the fuel system. This also gives you a chance to make SURE that you don't have any fuel leaks, which obviously would be a bad thing! I'll detail the basic setup process specific for my 2002 below, but in addition to my walk through I would strongly encourage you to also read and understand the details of the system straight from the source in the Megamanual: http://www.megamanual.com/ms2/configure.htm There's also a great write-up on using the TunerStudio software here: https://bauercatfish15.files.wordpress.com/2016/07/gant_semester_project.pdf On a final note, make sure you go through and put in the base settings for each and every one of these sections BEFORE YOU ATTEMPT TO START YOU CAR FOR THE FIRST TIME! 1.) - Engine Parameters OK, now let's start taking a closer look into the details of programming the controller, starting with entering the details of YOUR specific engine, which is what all later calculations will be based on. At its core, EFI control is actually rather simple. It just aims to inject the right amount of fuel to proportionally match the amount of oxygen entering each cylinder. But to know how much oxygen is entering each cylinder, we first need to know things like how many cylinders are on the engine, the volume of each cylinder, and how efficiently they draw in fresh air. Obviously our 2.0L engines have 4 cylinders each with a theoretical maximum volume of 0.5L of fresh air each. This is our starting point. In my Megasquirt's general settings, I have identified my ECU type as Megasquirt 2, and total engine displacement of 121 cubic inches. All other parameters I have left at their default values: The next important part to setup is the injection control settings. This tells the controller the details of my injectors (how many, how much fuel they flow, etc.) and how I want them controlled. The first step is to click on the 'Required Fuel' box up top and enter the engine and injector details, and the program then calculates a baseline for how long the injectors need to be open to provide the right amount of fuel under ideal circumstances. The lower portion then is where you decide HOW you want this amount of fuel to be delivered. In this example for my car, I have all four injectors firing simultaneously twice per engine cycle. This means (for a 4-stroke engine) all injectors will fire once per 360 degree crank revolution, and each firing will deliver half the required amount of fuel. Other options would be to fire them just once with the full amount of fuel per 720 degrees, or every 180 degrees with 1/4 the amount of fuel. You also have the option to batch fire just one bank of injectors instead of all of them together, but I think this makes more sense V-configuration engines where the two injector banks are two separate fuel rails for each cylinder head, and personally I don't see any reason to try this on a 2002: 2.) - Cranking and Starting In the general settings, you can choose to set starting parameters, like priming pulse, cranking pulse, after-start enrichment, etc. to use a two-point linear calculation or a table-based calculation (based on coolant temperature) that lets you do more fine-tuning of the parameters. I use the table option, but still keep things pretty linear. The priming pulse is a bit of gas injected BEFORE you even start cranking to 'prime' the initial intake charge. I have this set from 6.0ms at beyond-cold temperatures to 2.0ms at beyond-hot temperatures: Similarly, the cranking pulse is the injector pulse width during cranking (I think by default 'cranking' is defined as less than 300 RPM, you can adjust this but it seems fine for most cars). For this I go as high as 10ms for below-freezing conditions to 3.0ms for a fully hot-start. Obviously this is an important one for achieving easy cold starting. I admit though that I live in a rather mild climate so haven't really tested this very much on sub-freezing days, and I suspect my hot-start parameters are a bit on the rich side, but I have not fully run this one down yet. I'm basically saying, take these values with a grain of salt, and if anyone wants to propose more fully-researched values, I'd be happy to hear from you! 3.) - Warmup But wait, there's more! After the engine catches and has started, it still wants more fuel than normal for a few seconds while everything 'gets moving,' so to speak. This is accomplished by setting an addition enrichment percentage (added to the normal VE fueling calculated value), again based on temperature. There's actually two tables involved, the first is how MUCH additional enrichment is provided (the afterstart enrichment, or ASE, percentage), and the second is for how LONG, in engine cycles, it is applied for (ASE Taper): Ok, now we've gotten the starting and first ~30 seconds of parameters set, but what about for the rest of the time it takes for the car to get warmed up to operating temperature? Well, again there's two adjustments for this. The first is warmup enrichment. This is basically the same idea as ASE, but now base purely on coolant temperature and input as a total percentage of normal calculated fuel amount. I consider my car 'up to operating temperature' by about 170 degrees F, though you'll notice I chose phase out the warm up enrichment a little earlier at 150 degrees. Those last 20 degrees don't seem to matter much in how it runs, and for keeping the normal tuning process clean I like to not have to worry about factoring in warmup enrichment as a variable. One other variable to notice in here is the Flood Clear Threshold %. This is another starting parameter and is the throttle position at which Megasquirt assumes that you've accidentally flooded the engine and will SHUT DOWN all the injectors during cranking. This is a nice feature, but if you are used to starting your car with the throttle open, that will be a habit that you need to break! With properly set up Megasquirt tune, you should let it handle everything and always keep you foot off the pedal during starting in all conditions. 4.) - Idle Now that we have the fuel set up for the warmup phase, obviously the next important part is the intake air. This is set in the Idle PWM duty cycle if using a PWM valve, or in Idle Steps if using an IAC stepper motor. Note that there are conditions for cranking/starting to be set here as well. For starting, the IAC can be set to a cranking position, and move to the right spot per engine temperature. This is set in the Idle Control table. The Start Value is how many steps the stepper motor retracts (opens) when first powered up. This should be enough to get it from the fully closed to fully open position. The next box, cranking position, is how far it then closes back down from the fully open position. This then is effectively how much air your letting in during cranking, or put another way, how much throttle you want during starting, but without using the gas pedal. The third important box is the crank-to-run taper time, which is the number of seconds after the engine has started that it will hold this position before closing down further to the calculated position for the current engine temperature: Now that the starting parameters are set, next up is the warmup parameters. This is similarly adjusted as a table of IAC steps per temperature. Remember you'll want the IAC fully closed by the time the engine is warmed up, so this value in steps should match the start value from earlier, so that it always runs from fully open to fully closed: 5.) - Acceleration Enrichment Ok, this should cover all of the basic parameters for getting the car started and idling from cold to warm, other than the main VE table. There's one last area that we want to adjust first before getting there though, and that is acceleration enrichment. Just like the accelerator pump on a carburetor, this system provides a little extra fuel during the transient periods that you are actually changing the throttle position. It can use either changes in manifold absolute pressure (MAP), or changes is throttle position (TPS) as inputs, or a combination of the two. I use a 50/50 split of both, found it's smart to raise the threshold a bit, so that normal 'noise' from either the MAP or TPS sensor doesn't trigger any unwanted acceleration enrichment to kick in. Tuning this acceleration enrichment properly will help give you that nice snappy throttle response you undoubtedly want: You can also take this one step further if you want and try playing with the X-Tau correction tables. X-Tau corrects for an amount of fuel that gets 'stuck' on the walls of the intake port and valve (momentarily leaner), and then gets burned up *later* once it evaporates (momentarily richer), but I've never personally turned on X-Tau correction or tried to mess with it at all, so I can't offer you much advice beyond the basic operating principal here. 6.) Speed-Density vs. Alpha-N and the VE table Finally to the main fun part, the VE table! Let's firstly understand exactly what this is. At the very beginning in the Injection Control section, we told Megasquirt how much fuel our 2.0L engine will need under IDEAL conditions with perfect cylinder filling, but what about real-world conditions? This is where the VE table comes into play. At idle with a closed throttle plate, each cylinder isn't pulling in a full 0.5L worth of air, so clearly less fuel is necessary. Cylinder filling is also different at different RPMs; even at full throttle there's a difference in how much air the engine can pull in at 2000 vs. 5000 RPM. These two variables, engine load and engine speed, are the axes of the VE table, and the values then are nothing more than a percentage of that ideal amount of fuel for perfect cylinder filling. So referencing the earlier Required Fuel value that we calculated as 17.6 (in ms), a value in the VE table of 50 would mean that we're asking for 8.8ms of fuel at that particular operating point. Now with that all cleared up, we ready to address the difference between speed-density and Alpha-N. Fortunately it's pretty straight forward: speed-density uses manifold absolute pressure (or MAP) as the input for engine load, and Alpha-N uses the throttle position for load instead. In my humble opinion, speed-density is the superior method. Alpha-N works OK if you don't have a good MAP signal (for instance in an ITB setup), but if you CAN get a good MAP signal, then that's better for two reasons. First, it automatically compensates for changes in elevation. Going for a nice drive up into the mountains? No problem, as the air gets less dense, this is automatically reflected in the MAP, and Megasquirt leans things out for you. It's like changing out jets while driving! Secondly, I like that MAP is a more direct measurement of engine load, where as throttle position is one step further removed. (Incidentally mass air flow, or MAF, is one step better still, as it directly measures the mass of the oxygen entering the intake, which is why all modern OEM applications use it). Note: it's important to also use (and calibrate) an intake air temperature (IAT) sensor when using speed-density. The intake air changes density with temperature (aka there's less oxygen available at a given pressure with warmer air as opposed to cooler air), so the input from the IAT allows Megasquirt to compensate for this. Other than calibrating your sensor, I don't think there is any other setup needed for IAT correction, unless you wish to set up a non-linear correction curve (not sure when this is necessary though). Anyway, without further ado, here is what my VE table looks like: Remember yous might need to look a bit different, depending on your engine/pistons/cam/etc! I'll explain a few of the more important regions of the table now though: Idle - I have my car set to idle at about 900 RPM and there it's at about 40 kPa. I've found a VE of about 44 to give the smoothest, tad-rich (AFR ~14.0) idle. Notice that I keep this area of the VE table pretty flat with a lot of 44s so that a little fluctuation in idle speed or MAP signal won't drastically affect the injector pulse widths. Cruising - This is in the mid-MAP range (around 40-70kPa) from 2000-4000 RPM. Here the VE tables are only in the 50-60 range, not a whole lot higher than idle, compared to the 70 and up for most of the higher load and higher rev area. While cruising down the highway or a back road with only light throttle, you can really run much leaner than when you're accelerating, and thereby get much better fuel economy. More on this is the AFR section but for now just remember to not get too aggressive with the VEs in this area. Peak power/torque - Just the opposite of cruising, here at high load you want to error on the richer side. At full throttle above idle and higher RPMs with even a modest amount of throttle applied, I'm pretty much have the VEs at least up to 75, and they climb from there up to above 100 in the peak power band. You may also notice that my MAP axis goes up to 110kPa: above atmospheric pressure. This is because the 318i manifold has magnificent resonance properties in the mid-range (due to its long intake runners) and thus delivers a healthy bit of supercharging in this sweet spot, so I needed to run the table up into that range to capture this. Megasquirt will extrapolate linearly out beyond the VE table, but I prefer to try to keep everything under my control as much as possible. Note that for a turbo application, your VE table MAP axis should run all the way up to your max boost pressure, and VEs should also be increased accordingly. Overrun - This is the high vacuum area at the very bottom of the table (20-30kPa) when the throttle is closed for deceleration. Obviously you don't need much fuel here, so the VE numbers stay pretty low. I do raise them a tad at the low RPM just so the area around idle is smoother, though in truth I'm not sure if seeing as low as 20kPa at <1200 RPM is even realistic. 7.) EGO and AFR table If you're an experienced carb tuner, it's entirely possible to develop a pretty good VE table with just narrow-band or no O2 feedback (my dad and I did this on his 911 Megasquirt build) and achieve pretty good results. But in this day and age, using wide-band O2 feedback makes this infinitely simpler, and utilizing the AFR table and EGO closed-loop feedback in Megasquirt makes it so easy it almost feels like cheating. NOTE: I STRONGLY recommend leaving closed-loop EGO correction OFF or at least restricted with very limited authority while you develop your VE table until it's quite good on it's own. Just last weekend on my way to the Vintage my EGR sensor started to fail and reading very (untruthfully) rich, which caused the EGO control to reduce fuel and made the car run LEAN! Fortunately the EGO only had 5% authority, so I was only running 5% lean. But if I had for example had the EGO dialed up to 30%, then it would have instead run 30% and that would have been VERY bad! You want a good solid VE table as you basis, with EGO just for tuning feedback and at the most fine adjustments while running. The AFR table is just what it sounds like. It looks just like the VE table only here the numbers are your desired AFR target at the given operating points. Just like I mentioned for the VE table above, I like my idle area to be just on the rich side of stoichiometric, lean while cruising, rich under heavy load, and a bit lean on overrun, and smooth transitions between these areas: Again you should decide what works best for your own specific car, but this should give you and idea for a starting point. Next, here is what my EGO control settings look like. With a well developed VE table, I allow it the authority to adjust the fueling amount by 10% to try and hit the AFR targets. While dialing in an early VE table, I would suggest starting with no more than 5% (have some EGO is helpful during tuning, as it allows you to see in the datalogs when the EGO is kicking in and how much). I also cut the EGO control out at idle (only active above 1200 RPM) and at full throttle (only active below 75% TPS or 90 kPa). This is generally considered good practice so that the controller doesn't end up 'chasing its tail' in a feedback loop in these sensitive areas: 8.) Spark advance table Assuming that you're using Megasquirt to control your ignition (or even if you using something different like the 123Ignition distributor), you'll need to program in your desired ignition curve. The factory advance curve is a pretty good but conservative starting point, with about 15 degrees of advance at idle and 30 degrees of 'all-in' advance by 3000 RPM, and then an additional of ~5 degrees or so added for the overrun/high vacuum areas. My advance curve is slightly more aggressive than stock but still on the conservative side. I found the biggest improvement to come from a steeper climb in advance just above idle helps a lot with pulling off the line. I've think that 2002s tend to really like more advance in general, and I think with good 91 octane gas and a well dialed-in VE tune you can get all the way up to 40 degrees all-in, but play it safe starting out and increase slowly to avoid issues with pinging/detonation! I also found it helpful to increase advance just a bit *below* idle speed, so that idle sits in a bit of a 'valley' in the advance curve, which helps keep it stable: 9.) Datalogging and tuning Congratulations, you now have all of basics setup and should be ready to try starting your car! Here's my recommendation of steps to follow for the first startup: 1.) Cranking - Double check your timing, cranking/ASE, and idle control settings and then make sure the engine at least catches after a small amount of cranking. It's OK if it doesn't want to idle yet, but if it doesn't want to fire at all then go back to the wiring and these three settings first. 2.) Idle - First aim for a faster than normal idle, maybe ~1200 RPM, and adjust the warmup and fast idle parameters to try and keep it in this range until the car is fully warmed up. Once it's warm, make sure all warmup enrichment and fast idle adjustments have all cut out, and then work on the VE table, timing, and the mechanical idle stop to get a smooth idle at your desired idle RPM with an AFR in the low 14s. After you have a good warm idle, you'll probably need to go back later after another cold start and re-tweak the warmup and fast idle settings. 3.) Accel enrichment - Once you've got the car warmed up and idling nicely, start playing with the acceleration enrichment settings to get good throttle response so that the engine revs up quickly when you blip the gas and then returns back to a good idle without drama. 4.) Datalogging - Great, now time for a test drive! But before you pull out of the driveway, start recording a datalog (built-in capability with TunerStudio). This will let you review everything that happens during your drive and decide where and what adjustments need to be made accordingly. Here's an example from one of my logs. Let's just focus on the top most of the three graphs. Here, white is RPM, red is MAP, and green is AFR (you may want to enlarge for better viewing): In the first (left) half of the graph, I'm cruising and then decelerating. MAP is generally low, AFR is staying on the high side, and RPM is coming down with a few upward blips where I downshift. As soon as I come to a stop (low point on white RPM line), I then do a moderate acceleration in 1st and then close to full throttle for 2nd and 3rd (middle portion of the graph). If you look closely you can see a brief point early in the 1st gear run-up where the RPM drops just a little (I'm pretty sure this is due to the clutch engaging) and the AFR goes a bit high/lean - This is an area where I should consider increasing the value in the VE table! The gear shifts are the 'spikes' in the RPM line. Right where the indicator line is at I have lots of throttle (93.5 kPa) in 2nd gear at 4139 RPM and AFR is 13.2. In the tiny gauges at the very bottom of the screen, you can see that my target AFR (AFRtrgt1) in this area is set to 12.5, so I might want to richen this are up slightly, but 13.2 is already pretty good. The thing that does jump out at me in this section though are the low (rich) spikes in the AFR line right when I close the throttle (MAP goes low) to shift. This means I ought to decrease the amount of fuel during deceleration in my acceleration enrichment parameters (decel cut is just the opposite of accel enrichment for when the throttle is actively closing). In the last (right) section of the datalog, I shift into 4th and am back up to speed and cruising again and the AFRs nicely go back up the leaner cruising numbers. It takes some practice to get the hang of looking at and correctly interpreting all of this stuff in the datalogs, but THIS IS HOW YOU TUNE, FOLKS, so start grabbing some data and practicing! You should be able to get things running pretty well with just a few goes, but it will take many, many different rounds of test drives and the resulting finer and finer tweaks to get things close to perfect, but hey, this is part of the fun of DIY Megasquirt after all! Good luck and I encourage you to post additional questions and/or datalogs in the comments if you need further help with any specifics! View full article
  10. Hi all! So it's been a long time since I first posted about trying to self-tune my setup. For those who might not remember (or are new to my debacle, haha) this is what I'm working with- Factory Bottom End- No evidence of a lower-end rebuild, very likely has some oil blow-by on the piston rings, but that's ok for now. I'm working with what i've got both car and budget wise. A higher compression rebuild is likely in the future. Rebuild Cylinder head -Schrick 292 Camshaft -Schrick HD Springs (singles) -IE HD Rocker Arms -IE Rocker Locks Rebuilt Italian Weber 40DCOE32's -Not a true 'matched' pair, but both Italian, and both DCOE32's. -32mm Chokes -F16 Emulsion Tubes -50F9 Idle Jets -2.00 Needle Valves -Cold Start Elimination Kit - 132 Mains -195 Air correctors - 25mm Trumpets - Home-Made Air-Filter Ireland Engineering Shorty Manifold Ireland Engineering sourced Low-Pressure Electric Fuel Pump (trunk-mounted) Ireland Engineering Distributor Pertronix Flamethrower Ignition Coil After installation of the Cylinder head and re-assembly, I torqued everything down and set valve clearance appropriately. So, here's the first time Brunhilde ran after a 1 year hiatus! First thing I notice was that even though the timing was just hand-adjusted at this point, the idle is relatively smooth and the engine has no shakes. MIXTURE SCREWS WITH 50F9 IDLE JETS- ~2.5 turns out After that, I've since settled on an even 16 degree's advance at 1000 RPM, and it seems pretty happy with that. However, it required backing out the mixture screws 2.5+ for the happiest idle. This leads me to believe I need to go leaner on the Idle mixture jets. *I have not set total advance, but will look to once I get everything else closer to the ballpark, and feel more confident rev-ing her up. Ireland Engineering's directions suggest setting 34-36 degree's total advance, and that should lead to an idle advance between 14-16, and around 16 she seems to run best. FLOW RATES AT IDLE (1000 RPM) Cylinder 1- 3.5 kg/h Cylinder 2- 5.0 kg/h Cylinder 3- 5.0 kg/h Cylinder 4- 3.25 kg/h I've also since installed a Fuel Pressure Gauge after the Filter-King regulator, ahead of the carbs FUEL PRESSURE 2-2.25 PSI (doesn't seem to make a damn difference if I turn the adjustment screw all the way in, which should equal more pressure, so I'm guessing 2 is as high as the fuel pump delivers) AFR RATIOS Unfortunately I've been having power/ground issues with my gauge, so I need to get that fixed soon. But at Idle I was able to have the car sit happily at 12.5-13.5, but the numbers would jump around. I'll update once I get it back up and running. Since this setup, I've driven appx. 1.5 hours, and had her running stationary another 2 or 3 total. no hard driving/ hard acceleration under load. Below is a video I took yesterday of her running after I had a situation where she died at a gas-station for a while. What happened was I started/warmed her up at home in my garage, drove around for maybe 15-20 minutes, shut her down at a gas-station, filled up, and when I went to restart she refused. You could smell fuel, and I was getting spark but she wouldn't cough to life. Unfortunately I didn't have my spark-plug tool on me, so I had to wait about an hour, and then was able to get her re-started by going WOT and cranking a bunch. I'm leaning towards flooding of the cylinders. Here's the vid- WHAT I NOTICE 1. When comparing the vids from first startup till now the idle is not as smooth. 2. She's started coughing a bit through the rev range. 3. When I have tried leaning into the throttle around town, the response is quite sluggish, and not snappy or aggressive, leaving me thinking that the jetting is not ideal. Perhaps too rich? (need to confirm with AFR gauge) 4. With zero load, she seems to rev-up fine, but like I said before, under load, the motor feels a bit pig-ish. 5. At higher RPM's, I'm getting a bit of smoke from the exhaust... Likely Oil. Likely cylinder rings. 6. Theres very light puffing of smoke from the valve breather. also guessing ring blow-by. But there isn't an excessive amount of air-pressure. This wasn't an issue when I pulled the original head, but it had pretty bad valve-guide blow-by originally, so I'm going to bet the tighter top-end is exposing weaknesses in the bottom-end. 7. Something definitely sounds off to me, as if the motor is missing a beat. (there is a slight exhaust leak at the doughnut gasket I'll fix that, so listen past it) But all 4 cylinders are getting spark. I'm going to maybe guess due to fowling of plugs?? Speaking of... PLUG CONDITION AFTER INITIAL SETUP/RUN-IN Here's where deeper issues start to show themselves... To me it's obvious that the forward carb is running much richer than the back carb... which is concerning. and the back 2 cylinders look pretty good. 1 and 2 are heavily fouled, but the residue wasn't apparently oily. QUESTIONS Do you think the rich-ness fouling on the forward carburetor has more to do with the Idle circuit, the actual jetting, or the carb itself? What would cause two carburetors with the same prescriptions to be so much different in rich-ness, and what could possible problems leading to it be and their fixes? As for Jetting, do you guys still think I'm in the ballpark? Looking at #3 and #4 I'd lean towards yes, but the fronts... no. Hesitation starting and Hot-starting issues- I'm leaning towards the front carb having the flooding issue, looking at the #1 and #2 plugs... It was recommended in my other thread to pull the floats and see if they're leaking. Any other possibilities, remedies, or places to look? Toby and other often bring up the possibility of twisted throttle shafts... Could this be what's leading to the different flow rates between 1&2, and 3&4? How far off is too off? What's the remedy (I'm guessing it's removing the carbs and doing some twisty-pully action) Thanks again 02FAQ community! Me and Brunhilde appreciate your efforts -Jeff+Brunhilde
  11. is there a prescription somewhere for a 1.6? or would the normal prescription do fine for it? also, where do most of you buys your different types of jets?
  12. All, Just an observation... In the tuna can/TB of the Tii we have the 4mm stop/hole that is used as part of the basic calibration/setup for the fueling. That 4mm hole is eccentric in a part that's adjustable and locked/sealed underneath the tuna can: I took a look at 4 throttle bodies, the position of the eccentric varies quite a bit...in addition there are some numbers stamped on the outside of the body: Got me wondering what was the factory calibrating with this eccentric? Was it variation in TB assemblies, or variation in the whole mechanical assembly between TB and the kugel? If it's the latter, then that would mean the TB is matched with the kugel and/or the engine...and that if we swap out one part we may unintentionally destroy this calibration.... Anybody got info on this??
  13. My 1969 '02 with a Weber 32/36 was running fine, then suddenly started idling poorly and then would not idle at all. I first suspected a vacuum leak, but didn't find it despite 3 attempts to spray carb cleaner to raise idle at the leak. Because it had never been done, we did a complete tune up; same problems. Finally, our last attempt showed a massive leak at the carb base gasket - a new set of one fiber and one cork gasket that replaced my much thicker fiber gasket we had to remove when we restored the OEM filter/intake setup. Our home-made cork gasket failed and although looked fine, was leaking badly. QUESTION: We've been using cork gaskets for years with no problems on many vehicles. Is this yet another Ethanol problem?? What gasket materials do you use, and have you had similar experiences? Thanks!
  14. I recently installed a weber 38/38 on my 2002 (this one http://www.webercarbsdirect.com/product_p/wk204-38.htm) and it's kicking my butt trying to get it to act right. It runs well when warm and returns about 19MPG, but i have a really tough time with cold starts and sometimes warm starts. I crank and crank, pump the gas, try different choke settings (manual choke). when it finally comes alive, it idles poorly and low and has a tendency to die out if i put it into gear until it is warm. Idle gets steadily faster as it warms. It's like when it starts it isn't getting on the fast idle cam. I know that pumping the throttle can disengage the fast idle cam, but i can't get the car to start without touching the throttle. Here's a link to a video of a typical experience trying to start the car: https://youtu.be/vkE3mcr2OE4 . The attempt at 0:21 was the best, and the choke was closed, but the car dies after touching the throttle. Notice at the 0:56-1:01 mark i've got the pedal at WOT and it's just bogged down. It's sometimes like this when accelerating from a stop - very poor throttle response. Motor is stock, automatic transmission. I have confirmed timing is correct and replaced cap, rotor, and points (properly gaped). Plugs are brand new yesterday with only 4 or 5 successful starts on them. I have fuel fouled several sets of plugs previously. I have used this guide to help with tuning (http://www.redlineweber.com/html/Tech/38_dgas_tunning.htm). The mixture screws are set at 1.25 turns out. it's a little lean at this setting, but i had it up to 1.5 turns out and it wasn't extraordinarily happy. Idle is set to ~1k/1,100 rpm fast and about 7-800 when in gear - this corresponds to between 1/2 and 1 turn in on the idle screw. I've been backing it off - i have a terrible diesling at shut off if it's set above 1100 rpm main jets are stock at 1.45mm, air correctors show 1.70 mm (despite the diagram showing stock should be 1.85) and the idle jets are .45mm. (diagram -> http://www.webercarbsdirect.com/v/vspfiles/weber_carburetor_schematics/38DGASES.pdf) I've done a lot of reading/searching, but I'm still at a loss for what to do. Is it time to change jets? Do I have my idle and mixture settings way off? I'm also looking for recommendations on a good manual choke cable. the one supplied with the weber manual choke kit is garbage and isn't doing a good job actuating the choke 100% of the time. it has a tendency to get stuck (however in this video it appeared to be working properly) Any help is much appreciated. This has been extremely frustrating and I'm really hoping to have it solved before heading to mid America.
  15. Hey guys, I just recently moved back to Denver from Houston and was wondering if any of you can recommend someone to help with tuning? I purchased the car (1975 2002) about 2 years ago, and have been reading/tinkering since, but with little experienced input. The car came with a Weber 38 DGES, 318 header, mild IE cam, and unknown internals (most likely stock). I was able to get the car to run pretty reliably in Houston, but since moving have had a real hard time starting. Requires manually keeping the throttle up until it has a little heat in it. Previously it started great, with it warming happy on its own around 1500rpm (new starter, properly adjusted choke and idle speed). I have not touched the jets since I purchased it, and am wondering if I need to swap them because of the altitude. That being said, I do not know what is currently in there so can't just order something smaller. Thoughts? Adjust timing? Help? Thanks in advance.
  16. Looking for help getting this engine to run well. Rebuilt the Italian webers, jetted per 02 faq advice, synchronized and center pull throttle, timed to the flywheel ball, has a tii mech. distributor - still back fires when the revs are held at a few thousand. Will gladly pay someone who can help get this thing to run well. Milwaukee, Wi. area (Racine)
  17. I'm seeking some on going advice to get my DCOE 40's running better. I've tried various methods for dialing in the idle mixtures: Start 2.5 turns out, 1/4 to 1/2 turn clockwise in until engine falls away, or for best idle, of leanest idle, or for fastest idle. Start 1 turn out and turn either way so idle increases (clockwise?) until 1/4 turn each way has no effect. Start blah blah blah... I have a STE BK synchrometer to balance the carbs, but have a hard time reading the display precisely - the needle moves about a bit. It seems to me that the carbs are within 1 unit of each other, 7-8. Linkages and brake vacuum were disconnected when adjustments were made Timing is set to 10 degrees using an adjustable light, as per instructions, can't get the engine over 3k to set all in timing. No knocking noticeable I'm pretty certain the balancing and or idle mixture needs adjustment, but when the engine is hunting about it is impossible to adjust the idle mixtures. Currently, all the idle mixture screws are about 1 turn out. Problems: Idle is hunting Terrible power up to 3k, haven't gone over due to poor running of the engine Car starts first time when cold, but if it stalls once warm it is a major pain to start again Occasional bit of back fire when driving Plugs are black, wayyy too much fuel. Engine is new, <15 kms. 292 regrind from IE E12 - 9.5:1 CR - 90mm Bore Crane XR700 Ignition All new ignition leads, coil and cap Rebuilt and weighted dizzy, no vac, 10 degrees at static Pump is new, the bavarian model i think, or what ever the high flow low pressure one is. Carbs were pulled down, cleaned, inspected by a professional, not me, I think I recall him saying he left them rich whilst the engine was new, does this account for the F9 bleed tube? 33 chokes 125 main f16 tubes 45 pumps F9/55 idle j. 180 air I need to know a proven procedure for setting the idle mixtures, I'm sure this is my problem. I not new to carbs but totally new to DCOEs and multiple carbs. Will measure the floats in the next day, I know someone will ask so I better have an answer eh? Thanks Will
  18. This is the continuation of the Megasquirt/EDIS installation article found here (which I apparently ran out of article room in): This article will focus specifically on how to tune an EFI installation on your 2002. It will focus on Megasquirt as the example (since that is what I installed on my car and thus am most familiar with), but the general process is still applicable to other type of EFI setups. Note: Before you ask, no, I will NOT share my actual *.msq files. That's a great way for an amateur to screw up their engine by 'just trying.' I will however share and explain screenshots of the parameters that I use in my car. It is then up to YOU to understand this and use the information to build up your own parameters. I have traditionally used Megatune but have just recently been trying out TunerStudio Lite, so you will see screenshots from both pieces of software in this write-up. Section VII - Tuning Contents: 1.) Engine parameters 2.) Cranking and Starting 3.) Warmup 4.) Idle 5.) Acceleration enrichment 6.) Speed-Density vs. Alpha-N and the VE table 7.) EGO and AFR table 8.) Spark advance table 9.) Datalogging and tuning So you finally have Megasquirt (or another EFI) hardware installed on your 2002 and all wired up. But there's still more work to do before you try to crank the car up for the first time! Let's first double check that you didn't miss anything and have all of the prerequisites for loading up your first tune: A.) All hardware is installed (manifold, throttle body, fuel rail, injectors, fuel filter, fuel pump, O2 sensor, coolant sensor, intake air temp sensor, throttle position sensor, fast idle circuit, and if applicable, EDIS hardware). B.) All wiring is correct, hooked up, and SAFE (e.g. right size wiring, fused, etc.) C.) Megasquirt controller boots properly, has firmware loaded, and can communicate with your tuning laptop (via Megatune, Tunerstudio, etc.) So basically make sure everything is installed, wired properly, and you have proper communication to the EFI controller. A great first test of things in general is that when the Megasquirt unit is first powered up, it should briefly run the fuel pump for 2-3 seconds in order to prime and pressurize the fuel system. This also gives you a chance to make SURE that you don't have any fuel leaks, which obviously would be a bad thing! I'll detail the basic setup process specific for my 2002 below, but in addition to my walk through I would strongly encourage you to also read and understand the details of the system straight from the source in the Megamanual: http://www.megamanual.com/ms2/configure.htm There's also a great write-up on using the TunerStudio software here: https://bauercatfish15.files.wordpress.com/2016/07/gant_semester_project.pdf On a final note, make sure you go through and put in the base settings for each and every one of these sections BEFORE YOU ATTEMPT TO START YOU CAR FOR THE FIRST TIME! 1.) - Engine Parameters OK, now let's start taking a closer look into the details of programming the controller, starting with entering the details of YOUR specific engine, which is what all later calculations will be based on. At its core, EFI control is actually rather simple. It just aims to inject the right amount of fuel to proportionally match the amount of oxygen entering each cylinder. But to know how much oxygen is entering each cylinder, we first need to know things like how many cylinders are on the engine, the volume of each cylinder, and how efficiently they draw in fresh air. Obviously our 2.0L engines have 4 cylinders each with a theoretical maximum volume of 0.5L of fresh air each. This is our starting point. In my Megasquirt's general settings, I have identified my ECU type as Megasquirt 2, and total engine displacement of 121 cubic inches. All other parameters I have left at their default values: The next important part to setup is the injection control settings. This tells the controller the details of my injectors (how many, how much fuel they flow, etc.) and how I want them controlled. The first step is to click on the 'Required Fuel' box up top and enter the engine and injector details, and the program then calculates a baseline for how long the injectors need to be open to provide the right amount of fuel under ideal circumstances. The lower portion then is where you decide HOW you want this amount of fuel to be delivered. In this example for my car, I have all four injectors firing simultaneously twice per engine cycle. This means (for a 4-stroke engine) all injectors will fire once per 360 degree crank revolution, and each firing will deliver half the required amount of fuel. Other options would be to fire them just once with the full amount of fuel per 720 degrees, or every 180 degrees with 1/4 the amount of fuel. You also have the option to batch fire just one bank of injectors instead of all of them together, but I think this makes more sense V-configuration engines where the two injector banks are two separate fuel rails for each cylinder head, and personally I don't see any reason to try this on a 2002: 2.) - Cranking and Starting In the general settings, you can choose to set starting parameters, like priming pulse, cranking pulse, after-start enrichment, etc. to use a two-point linear calculation or a table-based calculation (based on coolant temperature) that lets you do more fine-tuning of the parameters. I use the table option, but still keep things pretty linear. The priming pulse is a bit of gas injected BEFORE you even start cranking to 'prime' the initial intake charge. I have this set from 6.0ms at beyond-cold temperatures to 2.0ms at beyond-hot temperatures: Similarly, the cranking pulse is the injector pulse width during cranking (I think by default 'cranking' is defined as less than 300 RPM, you can adjust this but it seems fine for most cars). For this I go as high as 10ms for below-freezing conditions to 3.0ms for a fully hot-start. Obviously this is an important one for achieving easy cold starting. I admit though that I live in a rather mild climate so haven't really tested this very much on sub-freezing days, and I suspect my hot-start parameters are a bit on the rich side, but I have not fully run this one down yet. I'm basically saying, take these values with a grain of salt, and if anyone wants to propose more fully-researched values, I'd be happy to hear from you! 3.) - Warmup But wait, there's more! After the engine catches and has started, it still wants more fuel than normal for a few seconds while everything 'gets moving,' so to speak. This is accomplished by setting an addition enrichment percentage (added to the normal VE fueling calculated value), again based on temperature. There's actually two tables involved, the first is how MUCH additional enrichment is provided (the afterstart enrichment, or ASE, percentage), and the second is for how LONG, in engine cycles, it is applied for (ASE Taper): Ok, now we've gotten the starting and first ~30 seconds of parameters set, but what about for the rest of the time it takes for the car to get warmed up to operating temperature? Well, again there's two adjustments for this. The first is warmup enrichment. This is basically the same idea as ASE, but now base purely on coolant temperature and input as a total percentage of normal calculated fuel amount. I consider my car 'up to operating temperature' by about 170 degrees F, though you'll notice I chose phase out the warm up enrichment a little earlier at 150 degrees. Those last 20 degrees don't seem to matter much in how it runs, and for keeping the normal tuning process clean I like to not have to worry about factoring in warmup enrichment as a variable. One other variable to notice in here is the Flood Clear Threshold %. This is another starting parameter and is the throttle position at which Megasquirt assumes that you've accidentally flooded the engine and will SHUT DOWN all the injectors during cranking. This is a nice feature, but if you are used to starting your car with the throttle open, that will be a habit that you need to break! With properly set up Megasquirt tune, you should let it handle everything and always keep you foot off the pedal during starting in all conditions. 4.) - Idle Now that we have the fuel set up for the warmup phase, obviously the next important part is the intake air. This is set in the Idle PWM duty cycle if using a PWM valve, or in Idle Steps if using an IAC stepper motor. Note that there are conditions for cranking/starting to be set here as well. For starting, the IAC can be set to a cranking position, and move to the right spot per engine temperature. This is set in the Idle Control table. The Start Value is how many steps the stepper motor retracts (opens) when first powered up. This should be enough to get it from the fully closed to fully open position. The next box, cranking position, is how far it then closes back down from the fully open position. This then is effectively how much air your letting in during cranking, or put another way, how much throttle you want during starting, but without using the gas pedal. The third important box is the crank-to-run taper time, which is the number of seconds after the engine has started that it will hold this position before closing down further to the calculated position for the current engine temperature: Now that the starting parameters are set, next up is the warmup parameters. This is similarly adjusted as a table of IAC steps per temperature. Remember you'll want the IAC fully closed by the time the engine is warmed up, so this value in steps should match the start value from earlier, so that it always runs from fully open to fully closed: 5.) - Acceleration Enrichment Ok, this should cover all of the basic parameters for getting the car started and idling from cold to warm, other than the main VE table. There's one last area that we want to adjust first before getting there though, and that is acceleration enrichment. Just like the accelerator pump on a carburetor, this system provides a little extra fuel during the transient periods that you are actually changing the throttle position. It can use either changes in manifold absolute pressure (MAP), or changes is throttle position (TPS) as inputs, or a combination of the two. I use a 50/50 split of both, found it's smart to raise the threshold a bit, so that normal 'noise' from either the MAP or TPS sensor doesn't trigger any unwanted acceleration enrichment to kick in. Tuning this acceleration enrichment properly will help give you that nice snappy throttle response you undoubtedly want: You can also take this one step further if you want and try playing with the X-Tau correction tables. X-Tau corrects for an amount of fuel that gets 'stuck' on the walls of the intake port and valve (momentarily leaner), and then gets burned up *later* once it evaporates (momentarily richer), but I've never personally turned on X-Tau correction or tried to mess with it at all, so I can't offer you much advice beyond the basic operating principal here. 6.) Speed-Density vs. Alpha-N and the VE table Finally to the main fun part, the VE table! Let's firstly understand exactly what this is. At the very beginning in the Injection Control section, we told Megasquirt how much fuel our 2.0L engine will need under IDEAL conditions with perfect cylinder filling, but what about real-world conditions? This is where the VE table comes into play. At idle with a closed throttle plate, each cylinder isn't pulling in a full 0.5L worth of air, so clearly less fuel is necessary. Cylinder filling is also different at different RPMs; even at full throttle there's a difference in how much air the engine can pull in at 2000 vs. 5000 RPM. These two variables, engine load and engine speed, are the axes of the VE table, and the values then are nothing more than a percentage of that ideal amount of fuel for perfect cylinder filling. So referencing the earlier Required Fuel value that we calculated as 17.6 (in ms), a value in the VE table of 50 would mean that we're asking for 8.8ms of fuel at that particular operating point. Now with that all cleared up, we ready to address the difference between speed-density and Alpha-N. Fortunately it's pretty straight forward: speed-density uses manifold absolute pressure (or MAP) as the input for engine load, and Alpha-N uses the throttle position for load instead. In my humble opinion, speed-density is the superior method. Alpha-N works OK if you don't have a good MAP signal (for instance in an ITB setup), but if you CAN get a good MAP signal, then that's better for two reasons. First, it automatically compensates for changes in elevation. Going for a nice drive up into the mountains? No problem, as the air gets less dense, this is automatically reflected in the MAP, and Megasquirt leans things out for you. It's like changing out jets while driving! Secondly, I like that MAP is a more direct measurement of engine load, where as throttle position is one step further removed. (Incidentally mass air flow, or MAF, is one step better still, as it directly measures the mass of the oxygen entering the intake, which is why all modern OEM applications use it). Note: it's important to also use (and calibrate) an intake air temperature (IAT) sensor when using speed-density. The intake air changes density with temperature (aka there's less oxygen available at a given pressure with warmer air as opposed to cooler air), so the input from the IAT allows Megasquirt to compensate for this. Other than calibrating your sensor, I don't think there is any other setup needed for IAT correction, unless you wish to set up a non-linear correction curve (not sure when this is necessary though). Anyway, without further ado, here is what my VE table looks like: Remember yous might need to look a bit different, depending on your engine/pistons/cam/etc! I'll explain a few of the more important regions of the table now though: Idle - I have my car set to idle at about 900 RPM and there it's at about 40 kPa. I've found a VE of about 44 to give the smoothest, tad-rich (AFR ~14.0) idle. Notice that I keep this area of the VE table pretty flat with a lot of 44s so that a little fluctuation in idle speed or MAP signal won't drastically affect the injector pulse widths. Cruising - This is in the mid-MAP range (around 40-70kPa) from 2000-4000 RPM. Here the VE tables are only in the 50-60 range, not a whole lot higher than idle, compared to the 70 and up for most of the higher load and higher rev area. While cruising down the highway or a back road with only light throttle, you can really run much leaner than when you're accelerating, and thereby get much better fuel economy. More on this is the AFR section but for now just remember to not get too aggressive with the VEs in this area. Peak power/torque - Just the opposite of cruising, here at high load you want to error on the richer side. At full throttle above idle and higher RPMs with even a modest amount of throttle applied, I'm pretty much have the VEs at least up to 75, and they climb from there up to above 100 in the peak power band. You may also notice that my MAP axis goes up to 110kPa: above atmospheric pressure. This is because the 318i manifold has magnificent resonance properties in the mid-range (due to its long intake runners) and thus delivers a healthy bit of supercharging in this sweet spot, so I needed to run the table up into that range to capture this. Megasquirt will extrapolate linearly out beyond the VE table, but I prefer to try to keep everything under my control as much as possible. Note that for a turbo application, your VE table MAP axis should run all the way up to your max boost pressure, and VEs should also be increased accordingly. Overrun - This is the high vacuum area at the very bottom of the table (20-30kPa) when the throttle is closed for deceleration. Obviously you don't need much fuel here, so the VE numbers stay pretty low. I do raise them a tad at the low RPM just so the area around idle is smoother, though in truth I'm not sure if seeing as low as 20kPa at <1200 RPM is even realistic. 7.) EGO and AFR table If you're an experienced carb tuner, it's entirely possible to develop a pretty good VE table with just narrow-band or no O2 feedback (my dad and I did this on his 911 Megasquirt build) and achieve pretty good results. But in this day and age, using wide-band O2 feedback makes this infinitely simpler, and utilizing the AFR table and EGO closed-loop feedback in Megasquirt makes it so easy it almost feels like cheating. NOTE: I STRONGLY recommend leaving closed-loop EGO correction OFF or at least restricted with very limited authority while you develop your VE table until it's quite good on it's own. Just last weekend on my way to the Vintage my EGR sensor started to fail and reading very (untruthfully) rich, which caused the EGO control to reduce fuel and made the car run LEAN! Fortunately the EGO only had 5% authority, so I was only running 5% lean. But if I had for example had the EGO dialed up to 30%, then it would have instead run 30% and that would have been VERY bad! You want a good solid VE table as you basis, with EGO just for tuning feedback and at the most fine adjustments while running. The AFR table is just what it sounds like. It looks just like the VE table only here the numbers are your desired AFR target at the given operating points. Just like I mentioned for the VE table above, I like my idle area to be just on the rich side of stoichiometric, lean while cruising, rich under heavy load, and a bit lean on overrun, and smooth transitions between these areas: Again you should decide what works best for your own specific car, but this should give you and idea for a starting point. Next, here is what my EGO control settings look like. With a well developed VE table, I allow it the authority to adjust the fueling amount by 10% to try and hit the AFR targets. While dialing in an early VE table, I would suggest starting with no more than 5% (have some EGO is helpful during tuning, as it allows you to see in the datalogs when the EGO is kicking in and how much). I also cut the EGO control out at idle (only active above 1200 RPM) and at full throttle (only active below 75% TPS or 90 kPa). This is generally considered good practice so that the controller doesn't end up 'chasing its tail' in a feedback loop in these sensitive areas: 8.) Spark advance table Assuming that you're using Megasquirt to control your ignition (or even if you using something different like the 123Ignition distributor), you'll need to program in your desired ignition curve. The factory advance curve is a pretty good but conservative starting point, with about 15 degrees of advance at idle and 30 degrees of 'all-in' advance by 3000 RPM, and then an additional of ~5 degrees or so added for the overrun/high vacuum areas. My advance curve is slightly more aggressive than stock but still on the conservative side. I found the biggest improvement to come from a steeper climb in advance just above idle helps a lot with pulling off the line. I've think that 2002s tend to really like more advance in general, and I think with good 91 octane gas and a well dialed-in VE tune you can get all the way up to 40 degrees all-in, but play it safe starting out and increase slowly to avoid issues with pinging/detonation! I also found it helpful to increase advance just a bit *below* idle speed, so that idle sits in a bit of a 'valley' in the advance curve, which helps keep it stable: 9.) Datalogging and tuning Congratulations, you now have all of basics setup and should be ready to try starting your car! Here's my recommendation of steps to follow for the first startup: 1.) Cranking - Double check your timing, cranking/ASE, and idle control settings and then make sure the engine at least catches after a small amount of cranking. It's OK if it doesn't want to idle yet, but if it doesn't want to fire at all then go back to the wiring and these three settings first. 2.) Idle - First aim for a faster than normal idle, maybe ~1200 RPM, and adjust the warmup and fast idle parameters to try and keep it in this range until the car is fully warmed up. Once it's warm, make sure all warmup enrichment and fast idle adjustments have all cut out, and then work on the VE table, timing, and the mechanical idle stop to get a smooth idle at your desired idle RPM with an AFR in the low 14s. After you have a good warm idle, you'll probably need to go back later after another cold start and re-tweak the warmup and fast idle settings. 3.) Accel enrichment - Once you've got the car warmed up and idling nicely, start playing with the acceleration enrichment settings to get good throttle response so that the engine revs up quickly when you blip the gas and then returns back to a good idle without drama. 4.) Datalogging - Great, now time for a test drive! But before you pull out of the driveway, start recording a datalog (built-in capability with TunerStudio). This will let you review everything that happens during your drive and decide where and what adjustments need to be made accordingly. Here's an example from one of my logs. Let's just focus on the top most of the three graphs. Here, white is RPM, red is MAP, and green is AFR (you may want to enlarge for better viewing): In the first (left) half of the graph, I'm cruising and then decelerating. MAP is generally low, AFR is staying on the high side, and RPM is coming down with a few upward blips where I downshift. As soon as I come to a stop (low point on white RPM line), I then do a moderate acceleration in 1st and then close to full throttle for 2nd and 3rd (middle portion of the graph). If you look closely you can see a brief point early in the 1st gear run-up where the RPM drops just a little (I'm pretty sure this is due to the clutch engaging) and the AFR goes a bit high/lean - This is an area where I should consider increasing the value in the VE table! The gear shifts are the 'spikes' in the RPM line. Right where the indicator line is at I have lots of throttle (93.5 kPa) in 2nd gear at 4139 RPM and AFR is 13.2. In the tiny gauges at the very bottom of the screen, you can see that my target AFR (AFRtrgt1) in this area is set to 12.5, so I might want to richen this are up slightly, but 13.2 is already pretty good. The thing that does jump out at me in this section though are the low (rich) spikes in the AFR line right when I close the throttle (MAP goes low) to shift. This means I ought to decrease the amount of fuel during deceleration in my acceleration enrichment parameters (decel cut is just the opposite of accel enrichment for when the throttle is actively closing). In the last (right) section of the datalog, I shift into 4th and am back up to speed and cruising again and the AFRs nicely go back up the leaner cruising numbers. It takes some practice to get the hang of looking at and correctly interpreting all of this stuff in the datalogs, but THIS IS HOW YOU TUNE, FOLKS, so start grabbing some data and practicing! You should be able to get things running pretty well with just a few goes, but it will take many, many different rounds of test drives and the resulting finer and finer tweaks to get things close to perfect, but hey, this is part of the fun of DIY Megasquirt after all! Good luck and I encourage you to post additional questions and/or datalogs in the comments if you need further help with any specifics!
  19. Henning

    EFIing an M10

    So this issue of EFIing an old M10 motor comes up repeatedly from time to time and so I thought I could bring my thoughts about this together. I don’t know if there’s already a blog entry or write-up, so… sorry if repeating. Please feel free to add all your info, opinions and experience to make this a helpful content for later readers! Talking about the reasons for EFI doesn’t make sense here I think. Let the pros-and-cons discussion take place somewhere else. Fuel supply (This does not affect tiis with an intact system) Pump: What kind of injection ever shall be installed, in any case you will need fuel supply. A 12 Volt electric fuel pump that provides a pressure of 2-3 bar (31-43.5psi) has to go into the car. I guess a lot of pumps will do this since various systems work with pressures in this range. You should find a good 2nd hand pump somewhere, so buying new isn’t the only option. Check for correct voltage, pressure, junction diameters and where to get connectors. Tii pumps have a delivery rate of 120ltr/hr and 1,5-2 bar pressure as the German manual says. These ones have an intake filter. There are in-tank-pumps also. Use the search function for info about this, I haven’t seen the perfect solution yet. Be aware of the different heights the 2002 tanks have when looking for an in-tank. I prefer an out-of-tank pump because of better access and less fuel mess if to address. Here are sending units. Left: roundies 46ltr.. 200mm. Middle: squaries 50ltr., 225mm. Right: tourings 51ltr/turbos 70ltr., 290mm. The other ones are all mounted on the underside of the car as far as I have seen. You may install a tii or other fuel pump at the same spot where tiis have them from factory. Don’t choose an in-trunk-mounting. Some versions of foreign brands will require custom installation by fabricating brackets or clamps. Care for elastic elements to the body for noise reduction. Don’t forget an expansion barrel not too far away from the pump to smooth out flow and pressure impulses. Check if your pump has an integrated filter in the intake, otherwise install an in-line-filter before. Feed line: The next step is the feed line. Tiis and -seemingly- all US-squaries have a metal tube leading from the left rear axle mount to the front end of the left frame rail below the battery. 73+ euro automatics have this, too. For tiis this is the feed line from the tank to the filter next to the radiator, for the carbed cars it’s the return line from the carburetor to the tank. The plastic line in the cabin is return for the tiis and feed for the carbureted. Check this one for usability anyway, it will carry some remaining pressure later. In case of doubt: renew. Do not install another plastic line parallel! Fuel pressure lines belong under the car. Cars that don’t have the metal tube from factory can be equipped with this (tii-) version but do not trust 50-year old material. Buy this new, the risk of losing gas through a leaky tube isn’t worth saving some $. Plan a fine filter at the engine end of the feed line. I relocated mine underneath the battery because there’s not so much heat from the radiator. Pickup: The fuel pump sucks gas out of the fuel tank. Tiis have a separate pickup unit including return next to the sending unit for the gauge cluster. In these cases, the sending unit doesn’t have a pickup but just the electric junctions of the sender. You may now find and install a tii fuel tank with pickup together with sieve and sender. This is a pretty easy and quick solution but wait for it until your tank is empty. If you want to stick to your just freshly refurbished tank you can modify it for the tii pickup: You may go this route as an option: Means: Create a custom pickup (don’t forget a sieve) and using the sending unit as return. Remember the different lenghts of the sending units. Let the diameters of pump intake/filter and custom pickup match. Order new gas-resistant rubber hoses of required sizes, clamps etc. Some squarie tanks should have a welded-in junction some similar to the one shown above, painted black. This one is not longer than its visible part and does not catch the bottom, so: useless. To get from the inside of the trunk to the underside of the car you will have to drill holes (in a non-tii). Here’s how it is done in a rear differential support from factory: The smaller tube is for the wires. Sorry for not sandblasting. So here’s your route: tank pickup, holes, fuel pump and feed line. Free order of appearance. These can be done without setting the car out of order for a longer time, it will remain driveable. If there are open junctions after installation: plug blind safe as long as not needed. Now be prepared to install a wideband oxygen sensor. Narrow bands are useless. A location for it may be in the downpipe after the junction of the two lines. After welding in the bung (it’s 18x1,5 at least for Bosch sensors), plug blind. Think about where to run the wires. Keep in mind that the oxygen sensor will need a controller. So buy a sensor with integrated controller (expensive), an ECU with integrated controller or an extra seperate device. These sometimes have a 3-step output (cold/middle/hot) for exhaust gas temperature for an LED, maybe in the center console. Well, this is the easier part and you will need it anyway. Now: choosing the EFI. It’s no good to look for a plug-and-play solution what simply doesn’t exist. A. Yes, there are these 318i L-jets. To swap the entire intake seems easy indeed but: - the 318i gets air from below and not from the side or above. It’s an updraft. There’s no space for the air flow meter and an airbox except you relocate the battery out of the engine bay. Some people don’t like this, metoo. Many custom holders, brackets etc. will be needed. - fabricating a throttle linkage will not be done quickly. You’ll have to combine levers and cable roll. - The RPM signal comes from #1 on the coil/dizzy. I’m not really sure if this signal coming from a dizzy with points is suitable or not. Worst scenario here: replace the camshaft including anti-clockwise dizzy by those ones of the 318i. - last not least: the E30 intake buddha is a question of taste, of course. But in my opinion the optics of the tii runners have never been topped. B. This Bosch LH 2.2 for Volvos. There are some people who have done this swap successfully by using the 318i intake also. This means same part, same issues plus several modifications to the harness and more. I went with an intake combi of 320i and tii but the required mods are still more. (didn’t get it to run) C. Aftermarket ECU and EFI systems These systems have their own universe. They offer the opportunity to take some kind of all-grabbing influence on your engine’s performance. Some are fuel-only, some cover ignition also. By this it should be possible to get a 76 to pass smog. If switching to another camshaft or a 4-valve head the ECU can be adjusted to these mods. Well, there is the learning curve, and it’s long: But however... Maybe you have to pay for a tuning shop. The prices vary a lot. Think carefully about your engine hardware and if the software will be familiar with it. On the other hand, you don’t need an ECU with full sequential for a 12-cylinder. Relay board: You will quite probably need this. A relay board is a device for many aftermarket ECUs. It carries a main relay, a pump relay (even tiis don’t have these) and several fuses. There are omni-fit boards in the market that use high-power transistors instead of relays. I don’t have experience with these but on the pictures they look pretty tiny. Check. Do NOT run the coil via the main relay! You will not be able to switch off the engine. I chose two small 4-fuse boxes with the same torpedo-style fuses as are in the car for symmetry. Look for space in your engine bay and think about where to locate this board. Now you can run a 1.5mm2 (do not undersize) wire to the pump colored green/white, that’s original. You could go from the relay board through the cabin under the rear seat through one of the blind plugs for the lower seat belt bolts- if there are no belts. Look for a solid ground spot and run a brown 1,5mm2 wire for the pump to it. The ground wire for the rear defrost should be near. At this stage the car will still be driveable. Decide: cover the ignition or not? I recommend yes. There is the chance to gain so much better torque at lower RPM that you won’t miss it if experienced once. You may start tuning fuel-only and add the ignition later but don’t buy an ECU not covering the ignition feature. For this, you will have to have a trigger wheel. I’ve learned that a 36-1 is quite easy to handle since each gap has 5°. Which custom wheel and which sensor (hall or VR) you choose is up to you. Note: your ECU must handle your choice. Here are measurements of the tii crank pulley hub (for easier app'ing a trigger wheel) : Note that there is a mark on the pressed-on ring that does NOT show TDC! Now let’s come to the injection style: throttle body injection (TBI) or port injection. The base of the phrase is: where exactly are the injectors located? I’ve been told that both styles could be run with an alpha/n-only ECU but ask yourself if you really want to do that. Most ECUs offer certain additional inputs and it would be a waste not to use them for better performance. When choosing a TBI unit you should check: number of injectors, flow rate, impedance (resistance) and throttle size. What about: air temp sensor (IAT), fuel pressure regulator, throttle position sensor (TPS) and an idle air control valve (IACV or IAV)? Is it pulse width modulation (PWM) operated or is it a stepper motor? Note that the to-be-chosen ECU must be able to handle all components! My UMC for example can’t deal with a stepper. Where to put a MAP (manifold absolute pressure) junction? Some ECUs have a built-in sensor and are connected by a plastic tube, some have electric input and need a separate sensor adapted to the intake somehow, but do check before. Compare the questionable TBI units for hardware and think about where to install missing sensors (IAT in the airbox, coolant liquid temp =CLT in a 318i/320i divider, where to put the IAV). Don’t choose a unit without TPS, it’s a mess to adapt these later. Look if a universal engine wire set is available, these seem to be pricey. Otherwise you’ll have to buy all single wires of your color choice or de-knot a 2nd hand harness- what I did. Look for all required connectors and plug housings. Will your stock airbox fit onto the top? These and more questions have to be answered before choosing an ECU. Some may want to have port injection. I see three routes: 318i buddha intake, 4-throttle intake with injector holes from an aftermarket supplier or 320i injector bridge with custom intake. The 318i buddha intake has already been addressed. If going with 4-throttles check if a TPS is included. Other sensors won’t be included, so prove where to get and and how to locate them. What kind of airbox may match? How to connect an idle valve or can a throttle motor be adapted? Does the ECU accept such motors? The euro 320i with K-jet was offered from 1975 to 1977. In the US seemingly longer. Its intake injector bridges can be set with more modern electric injectors. Well, adding the intake there won’t be much space below: The black square feed line is hardly visible. It has to be modified and it is really very tight there. The mounting of a TPS to the TB is hard. You may have a custom intake: Decide if you want to fire batch, semi- or full sequential. Yeah: do google. Concerning the ignition: you may stick to the standard dizzy, some may upgrade to coil-on-plugs (COP). There are also twin modules with the ECU running in waste spark mode but then the dizzy has to be replaced by a blind plug. Where and how to install COPs? However: no way without trigger wheel. Check resistance of plugs, wires and coils. Either the modules need integrated drivers or the ECU needs them. Choosing the ECU is easier at this point. It has to provide all your required inputs and outputs. Raise a list. I chose a pretty small one since it might find a place in the engine bay to avoid drilling a hole for the harness: The model car has a scale of 1:43. Be now aware of the mapping. Some have talent to think inside this stuff. My advice is: read, read and read. When finished: continue reading. Talk to as many people as you can find who know about this and like to share their experiences with you. Or: pay the man. These are pricey men. This is just a short overview. Now feel free to add your thoughts, ideas and corrections. I’ve done the beginning. You’re welcome!!
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