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  1. Fuel injection conversion parts to be used with the Megasquirt system, including intake manifold, fuel rail (with regulator and injectors) exhaust manifold with Oxygen sensor, coolant hoses flange (w/3 coolant sensor ports), coolant bypass line and a radiator with thermal switch for an electric fan. All came from a 1984 318i with a M/T. ALL USED PARTS. You still need to purchase the electronic hardware and software from the Megasquirt company and other materials as well, there are a few great articles in this forum on how to get the conversion done. I Take only cash and prefer local pick up. Any questions IM me. Thabk you Vic
  2. I spent most of 2014 installing the engine and trans, finishing and fine tuning the Megasquirt installation, and a bunch of other miscellaneous tasks to get it ready to turn the key for the first time. Also a million and one other "while I'm there" jobs like LED bulbs for the dash, securing the oversize spare wheel, fixing the hood support, etc., etc.,... Then it was off to a local dyno shop for tuning with some great results for a first effort. Installing Engine Wiring The part I dislike the most. It's tedious and I suck at it. Wiring errors and "on the job learning" is perhaps
  3. This is the continuation of the Megasquirt/EDIS installation article found here (which I apparently ran out of article room in): This article will focus specifically on how to tune an EFI installation on your 2002. It will focus on Megasquirt as the example (since that is what I installed on my car and thus am most familiar with), but the general process is still applicable to other type of EFI setups. Note: Before you ask, no, I will NOT share my actual *.msq files. That's a great way for an amateur to screw up their engine by 'just trying.' I will however share and explain scre
  4. So, this project has been on hold for a while as my next big step is to really learn how to properly tune MegaSquirt, and I just haven't had the time to commit to that. But, I had a couple hours today which I spent casting a proper delete plate for my distributor. This is my first sand casting using a core (to create the hollow for the cam end). You'll see there's a little divot at the upper left. This is where I can drill and tap for the oil pressure sender, although I may end up moving that over to the oil filter housing. That's it for now
  5. So, I've been busy selling off some of my cars, and haven't really been giving this project as much time as I'd like. But, I managed to finish the wiring harness and start the engine this week. I've updated the wiring diagram in the first post to reflect the current configuration. After the successful start, I'm taking some time to reconfigure my engine stand set-up so that it will be less ad hoc during the tuning phase. Here is an overview shot of the engine as it sits this evening: I ended up going with pencil coils on plug from a 2003-04 Honda CBR600RR mo
  6. So, this week I found time to finish machining my 36-1 teeth into the stock pulley and cast two more pieces for the EFI conversion. First is a bracket to hold the crank sensor from DIY AutoTune: Second is a small plate with a port to connect to a Suzuki Swift IAC (idle air control) valve. I'm not 100% sure that this IAC will allow enough air flow for the M10, considering it's from an engine with half the volume, but I had one easily at hand, so I'm giving it a try. I'm going to mount it to the underside of the intake using two pre-existing bosses and a custom
  7. So, my first specific task towards converting my M10 over to EFI was to draw up a wiring diagram for my MegaSquirt-based (more specifically, MicroSquirt v2.2 based) Stratified PNP ECU: I will update this image as I continue to refine the diagram (updated 5/22/18 to correct coil wiring). There are few enough wires involved that I can use just the big 26-pin plug going into the OEM-style connector on the ECU. I'm using the TPS from a 1984-89 Nissan 300ZX with the adapter from 02again that allows that TPS to screw right onto the BMW throttle body:
  8. When I was running the engine on the stand, I used the default tables and only modified a handful of settings specifically to the engine. It started and ran "fine" that way. Once I moved everything into the vehicle and was ready to actually start tuning, I wanted to establish a more rational baseline to work from. The very first thing I did was upgrade my MegaSquirt firmware to the latest version. Mine was very old (3.1.0 vs. 3.4.2), and this change alone made the engine run noticeably better. I then made changes to the settings and tables following the approach of Andy Whittle on YouTube. Las
  9. As I suspected, the Geo Metro air control valve did not move enough air for the m10 engine. So, I got a Ford style valve and installed it. Now the engine starts and idles as it should. Here are the details of my installation. 1. I made this steel bracket to mount the IAC under the first and second tubes of the intake. You'll note that I had to grind that nubbin down a little to clear the valve body: 2. Here is the Ford idle control valve mounted to the bracket. I have this thin wall tube that has an outer diameter that is exactly 16mm. I slid short lengths of it in
  10. This sub-project was a case of "because it's there". I'm not a seasoned mechanic by any means so this was definitely a challenge for me, but that was half the fun. I know which is the business end of a spanner/wrench, but this was a major escalation in terms of goals. I learnt a lot in the process, and made mistakes. It has been very satisfying to pull it all together. It started as a complete front suspension and steering rebuild, and snowballed from there. As I was dropping the subframe anyway, I decided the motor and trans would come out too for a cosmetic clean up. The dual DCOE carbs wer
  11. Complete system $300 plus shipping from NC 27305 Individual parts available: ECU's BMW or Volvo $50 each AFM $50 Wiring Harness $100 Relay packs $50 Injector rails with injectors $50 Distributor $50 Idle Valve $30 Water neck with sensors $30 PLEASE email me at [email protected] Also consider my location NC USA ZIP 27305 a complete FI system is big and heavy and you have to pay for shipping, I am not Amazon! If you are concerned with who you are dealing with, I use my real name AL TAYLOR and you can Google " Al Taylor BMW "to see that I am real. Thanks Al Taylor
  12. Hello everyone, I was in the process of converting my little m10 to EFI and turbocharging it but I've moved onto another project. I regretfully am selling all the bits and bobs needed to convert your 2002 and boost your hp/torque numbers, making the already thrilling '02 into something a little scarier. I never installed any parts onto my car, most are new and in their original packaging. I'd like to keep the lot together to make shipping easier but if this post sits for a while, I'll start to split things up. Buyer pays shipping and we can go through PayPal. Please read through the list of parts below and let me know if you have any questions. Price is OBO, PM or email me: [email protected] Thanks for looking, Cole MS2 V3.0 set up for running Ford EDIS-4, stim and RS232 cable included DIY Autotune Harness with 90% of the wires cut/sized/soldered Innovate LC2 Wideband O2 kit with weldable bung E30 water bypass tube E30 coolant temp sensor housing E30 intake manifold with 325e throttle body Hyundai Elantra throttle position sensor and adapter Bosh Volvo 33lb injectors GM intake air temp sensor Jeep IAC stepper motor and 02Again mounting hardware Ford Escort EDIS-4, VR sensor w/ 02Again mounting bracket, extra 36-1 trigger wheel and coil pack/wires 02Again 36-1 trigger wheel/pulley 02Again distributor plug 02Again fuel pump block off plate 1990 325i in tank fuel pump E30 battery cables for trunk mounting your battery Garrett T25 rebuilt turbo with 3" down pipe adapter flange****needs to be balanced***(at least I would have it professionally done before installing) Misc oil feed pipes for T25 Stainless Steel Turbo headers/gasket and adapter for T25 ARP head studs for M10 Cometic MLS head gasket 27"x7"x2.5" intercooler with 2.5" pipe kit(aluminum pipe/fittings/clamps/silicone elbows and straight pieces) 2.5" Universal BOV and aluminum pipe with flange I believe this is everything I have but I may have missed mentioning some miscellaneous E30 things included
  13. Hello everyone, I was in the process of converting my little m10 to EFI and turbocharging it but I've moved onto another project. I regretfully am selling all the bits and bobs needed to convert your 2002 and boost your hp/torque numbers, making the already thrilling '02 into something a little scarier. I never installed any parts onto my car, most are new and in their original packaging. The people have spoken and I have listened so I am now going to split everything up! SHIPPING INCLUDED to lower 48. Please read through the list of parts below and let me know if you have any questions. Prices are OBO, I'm just trying to recover most of what I had into them. PM or email me: [email protected] More pics and info upon request Thanks for looking, Cole bosch brown injectors off saab 2.3 turbo(untested): $40 for 5 BMW 325e Throttle Body: $50 BMW 325e TB to e30 manifold adapter: $50 1990 325i in tank fuel pump: $80 M10 turbo Exhaust manifold: $190 Fuse/Relay Box: $15 GM IAT sensor: $25 MS Wiring Harness: $85 MS Stimulator for MSII V3.0: $50 MSII V3.0: $540 e30 Battery Cables for trunk mount: $25 e30 coolant neck and sensors: $30 02Again FP blockoff plate: $25 02Again Crank Pulley/Trigger wheel: $200 02Again Ford EDIS-4 VR sensor locating mount: $20 02Again IAC Adapter: $75 Jeep IAC for e30 manifold: $25 25ft High Pressure Fuel Hose: $85 10ft 60psi 1/8" inner diameter Vacuum hose: $35 Innovate LC2 wideband 02 Sensor kit: $190 ARP m10 Head Studs: $190 90mm Cometic MLS Head Gasket: $170 m10 exhaust gasket: $30 Ford EDIS-4 & wiring: $50 E30 water bypass hoses and misc piping: $40 Extra 36-1 Ford EDIS Trigger wheel(just the toothed ring): $20
  14. I have a mid 80's 325e that a got by mistake. I was looking for a 325is throttle body and got this by mistake. Appears to work properly, not sure about Tps .Perfect for a fuel injection upgrade. $40includes shipping to the lower 48 states.
  15. Hey everyone, I hope your holidays are going good. I got tired of seeing all these guys making it big on Youtube and not pursuing that opportunity myself. So, I finished editing my first video using some old but gold footage and made my channel today. There will be a lot of interesting stuff coming up that I'll be documenting. I'm doing an E30 DTM style trailing arm swap. I'm elbows deep in building a medium case 3 clutch LSD to go into a custom subframe. I'm going to video building an M10 from the ground up because I'm assembling my boost-ready one. There will probably be tuning related stuff coming up because I recently finished street tuning my junkyard MS2/EDIS conversion. I'm going to document the correct way to rebuild a G245 transmission without having to destroy the bearings and potentially document how to rebuild a G265 as well. There aren't instructional videos on doing either one as far as I'm aware. I'm videoing my install of E24 rear seats. I'm going to try something I've never seen done which is run a 240mm 533i flywheel on an M10. There will be motorcycle and diesel/truck related content as well. I'm not going to sit here and pretend like I'm the expert, but I've learned a lot over the years and I've always wondered where this could lead. After the car is fast, I might experiment with some of the more click-bait-ish videos too like reactions and more racing related stuff. But it's going to be a lot of technical stuff for now. Please feel free to check out my first video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8dIvw1RmtZk If you want to watch more videos as I make 'em you can subscribe here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCtUIrS7VHWGVv1Ho2RRd5tg If you have any pointers for my editing or ideas for videos you want to see, please let me know. Feedback is good, especially negative, because it will only motivate me to chase this more. I made an Instagram as well if you have any interest in that: https://www.instagram.com/fearlessbenjamin/ I have no idea where this could lead but I'm sure as hell going to try.
  16. Many of you will have seen an abridged version of this on the 2002 group on Facebook, so apologies for the repetition. After taking the car to the dyno once the EFI build was finished, I kind of got the bug for more power which is probably no surprise to anyone here. I was somewhat disappointed in the 134rwhp/129tq on ITBs+EFI, and figuring that another dyno session with no substantial changes would only yield modest gains, I decided to stretch myself and go forced induction. I looked for a bolt-on solution and came to the conclusion that the Century/BAE turbo or DA/Camden supercharg
  17. Should the ignition table for EDIS be adjusted when switching from a single inlet to individual inlets? I'm thinking single carbs and throttle bodies versus sidedrafts and ITBs. I am transferring an EDIS system from an M10 that ran with a single 32/36 weber to an M10 with DCOMs. Should any adjustments be made in the MAP/advance table?
  18. Does anybody have an advance curve that is anywhere close to a 292 Cam'd, Dual DCOE M10, preferably a 3D one using TPS? Maybe some of you 123tune guys?
  19. Hey Folks, Apologies, a bit of a rant. There is one thing that gripes me as I start my fuel injection conversion. It is all the wiring harness splicing I’ll have to do. Most sensor connectors come with waterproofed terminals – potted, essentially – and I’ll have to splice my wiring harness into the connector pigtail rather than solder/crimp the harness wire to a pin and pop it into the connector shell. Grrrr. It isn’t clean and it’s not the Boeing way (where I was a mechanical flight controls engineer but inevitably had to chase down some sparky problem or another on an airplane.) There really is no way around splicing left and right is there?
  20. I regret to say that my time as a proud 2002 owner may be coming to an end for the time being. Up for sale is my 1976 BMW 2002 with Megasquirt EFI conversion, and lots of upgrades. I've owned this car for the past eight years. It's been extremely well cared for. It's both my project car, and my only car, which turns out to not be a great combination. So I'm reluctantly letting it go in order to get myself a daily driver which I won't be tempted to tinker with. As it is I almost never drive it because it's often mid-project. It had 295,000 miles on the odometer when the odometer stopped working, and now is probably a little over 300k. Note, though, that most parts have been rebuilt or replaced at some point in its life (many of those since I've owned it) so the mileage on any given component is typically much lower than that. More pictures can be found at: https://www.invertedearth.net/klaus-the-kar-for-sale/ A few of the more significant upgrades over the past couple of years are: Megasquirt EFI (fuel injection) conversion distributorless electronic ignition (also programmable via megasquirt) Recently replaced brake calipers, drums, rotors Stainless steel brake lines Bilstein Sport strut inserts, Bilstein HD shock absorbers Optima red top battery (relocated to trunk) Shock brace New exhaust system (stainless steel header and down pipe, ANSA resonator and muffler) Head rebuilt during Megasquirt conversion (<20,000 miles ago) 65 Amp Bosch alternator Larger BMW 318i radiator Silicone coolant hoses Electric fan Freshly restored (blasted+ powder coated) E30 M3 basketweave wheels Brand new tires (0 miles) Momo steering wheel Custom center console Refurbished trunk New spare wheel + tire Euro turn signals Replaced many plastic bits, added sound deadening, etc for quieter ride Too many more upgrades to list here, but see pictures, and ask questions for more details. All modifications have been extensively documented for maintainability. The car isn't perfect, and I'll do my best here to give a complete list of problems for full disclosure. The ones that can be photographed are included in the pictures. If you have any questions about something here, or want more pictures of something just let me know. Four rust patches (two on the nose, one on the lower drivers side fender, and one in the spare wheel well). No other rust problems. The idle is higher than I'd like (~2k) — fixing would require tweaking start-up parameters on the Megasquirt to compensate for lower idle during cold starts. I've been meaning to get around to this, but haven't yet. The trunk leaks small amounts of water during very heavy rain. Can presumably be fixed with a $40 rubber trunk seal. I haven't bothered because I park it in a covered spot, and don't drive in the rain. (Fixed) The seat vinyl has some cracks: one in the drivers side seat, another in the top of the rear seat backrest. I replaced the heater valve with a hardware store hose valve (means you need to turn a big red knob under the hood to adjust the heater. 10% steampunk, 90% silly and impractical) The tachometer doesn't work because the distributor was removed during the megasquirt upgrade. ** The odometer randomly stopped working a few years ago ** ** I'm currently working on designing and building a digital speedometer and tachometer for the 2002 — using the original gauge faces. I have a working prototype (pictures here: https://www.invertedearth.net/2002-digital-gauges/ ), but the design needs to be polished up. Whoever buys this car can have one for free once I finish that project — aiming for early next year. I'm really sad to see it go, but it's just not financially practical for me to keep it right now. Preference definitely goes to buyers who are interested in continuing where I left off with projects and upgrades, but any good home will do. Please feel free to contact me with any questions or concerns or requests for more pictures. It should be noted that this car cannot be registered in California because the megasquirt conversion will not pass visual inspection for OEM smog equipment. Ironic, because it should have better tail-pipe emissions now than it did with the carb. Portland inspection should be okay, but I've never tried so I can't guarantee that. Contact me by PM with questions, or for more photos, etc. I'm asking $10,500, but am open to all offers. Thanks!! -Jonathan
  21. Curious as to how other people with the 318 'upside down' manifold are doing their fresh air intakes. I figured out something that works pretty well with off the shelf autozone parts, but I admit it's a little ghetto fabulous. I have the modular Spectra piping with a 90 degree silicone boot, and then I put a wooden block on the end of the air intake with a little hole in it that engages with a bolt that I put through an existing hole through the nose sheet metal to hold it in place and support the weight there at the air cleaner end. Gets plenty of fresh air there but also gets some spill over air from the radiator as my IAT is usually ~15-20 warmer than ambient. So anyway, I feel this is a decent cheap and dirty way to do it, but what other more elegant solutions are out there?
  22. M10 E30: Fuel Rail Pump/Sender Appropriate: Injectors Pressure Regulators Oh, and a Megasquirt v3 if someone has one laying around. If it's used and not significantly cheaper than the new kits on eBay, no need to contact me. I'm wary of used electronics and often prefer not to take my chances unless it's a killer deal.
  23. Price:: 40 Location: : Minneapolis, MN, USA Price: $40.00 Location: Minnesota, USA For sale: set of four used Weber Magneti Marelli 29lb/hr fuel injectors (aka Edelbrock 3583 injectors). Part number IWP162. Pico style. Used on my MegaSquirt/ITB build - proven to work. I upgraded to 60lb/hr injectors so don't need these any more. Uses EV1 style connectors. 14.9 ohms, 12V, Saturated Circuit. Cheapest new genuine ones you will find on ebay/amazon are at least $50 each. Price: $40 for the set of four Payment: PayPal Dibs: leave a post below, buyers contacted in dibs order Contact: colin_ewart AT hotmail.com Shipping within USA: $5.95 International shipping: depends on destination Shipped in USPS Priority Mail Flat Rate box (small size) from USA zip code 55313
  24. If you haven't seen it, you can use this spreadsheet to 3D visualize your ignition curve, no matter what programmable ignition product you are using.. you can even map the stock curve just for kicks. Putting it here for easy(er) access. http://www.bmw2002faq.com/links/category/5-technical-links/
  25. This is the continuation of the Megasquirt/EDIS installation article found here (which I apparently ran out of article room in): This article will focus specifically on how to tune an EFI installation on your 2002. It will focus on Megasquirt as the example (since that is what I installed on my car and thus am most familiar with), but the general process is still applicable to other type of EFI setups. Note: Before you ask, no, I will NOT share my actual *.msq files. That's a great way for an amateur to screw up their engine by 'just trying.' I will however share and explain screenshots of the parameters that I use in my car. It is then up to YOU to understand this and use the information to build up your own parameters. I have traditionally used Megatune but have just recently been trying out TunerStudio Lite, so you will see screenshots from both pieces of software in this write-up. Section VII - Tuning Contents: 1.) Engine parameters 2.) Cranking and Starting 3.) Warmup 4.) Idle 5.) Acceleration enrichment 6.) Speed-Density vs. Alpha-N and the VE table 7.) EGO and AFR table 8.) Spark advance table 9.) Datalogging and tuning So you finally have Megasquirt (or another EFI) hardware installed on your 2002 and all wired up. But there's still more work to do before you try to crank the car up for the first time! Let's first double check that you didn't miss anything and have all of the prerequisites for loading up your first tune: A.) All hardware is installed (manifold, throttle body, fuel rail, injectors, fuel filter, fuel pump, O2 sensor, coolant sensor, intake air temp sensor, throttle position sensor, fast idle circuit, and if applicable, EDIS hardware). B.) All wiring is correct, hooked up, and SAFE (e.g. right size wiring, fused, etc.) C.) Megasquirt controller boots properly, has firmware loaded, and can communicate with your tuning laptop (via Megatune, Tunerstudio, etc.) So basically make sure everything is installed, wired properly, and you have proper communication to the EFI controller. A great first test of things in general is that when the Megasquirt unit is first powered up, it should briefly run the fuel pump for 2-3 seconds in order to prime and pressurize the fuel system. This also gives you a chance to make SURE that you don't have any fuel leaks, which obviously would be a bad thing! I'll detail the basic setup process specific for my 2002 below, but in addition to my walk through I would strongly encourage you to also read and understand the details of the system straight from the source in the Megamanual: http://www.megamanual.com/ms2/configure.htm There's also a great write-up on using the TunerStudio software here: https://bauercatfish15.files.wordpress.com/2016/07/gant_semester_project.pdf On a final note, make sure you go through and put in the base settings for each and every one of these sections BEFORE YOU ATTEMPT TO START YOU CAR FOR THE FIRST TIME! 1.) - Engine Parameters OK, now let's start taking a closer look into the details of programming the controller, starting with entering the details of YOUR specific engine, which is what all later calculations will be based on. At its core, EFI control is actually rather simple. It just aims to inject the right amount of fuel to proportionally match the amount of oxygen entering each cylinder. But to know how much oxygen is entering each cylinder, we first need to know things like how many cylinders are on the engine, the volume of each cylinder, and how efficiently they draw in fresh air. Obviously our 2.0L engines have 4 cylinders each with a theoretical maximum volume of 0.5L of fresh air each. This is our starting point. In my Megasquirt's general settings, I have identified my ECU type as Megasquirt 2, and total engine displacement of 121 cubic inches. All other parameters I have left at their default values: The next important part to setup is the injection control settings. This tells the controller the details of my injectors (how many, how much fuel they flow, etc.) and how I want them controlled. The first step is to click on the 'Required Fuel' box up top and enter the engine and injector details, and the program then calculates a baseline for how long the injectors need to be open to provide the right amount of fuel under ideal circumstances. The lower portion then is where you decide HOW you want this amount of fuel to be delivered. In this example for my car, I have all four injectors firing simultaneously twice per engine cycle. This means (for a 4-stroke engine) all injectors will fire once per 360 degree crank revolution, and each firing will deliver half the required amount of fuel. Other options would be to fire them just once with the full amount of fuel per 720 degrees, or every 180 degrees with 1/4 the amount of fuel. You also have the option to batch fire just one bank of injectors instead of all of them together, but I think this makes more sense V-configuration engines where the two injector banks are two separate fuel rails for each cylinder head, and personally I don't see any reason to try this on a 2002: 2.) - Cranking and Starting In the general settings, you can choose to set starting parameters, like priming pulse, cranking pulse, after-start enrichment, etc. to use a two-point linear calculation or a table-based calculation (based on coolant temperature) that lets you do more fine-tuning of the parameters. I use the table option, but still keep things pretty linear. The priming pulse is a bit of gas injected BEFORE you even start cranking to 'prime' the initial intake charge. I have this set from 6.0ms at beyond-cold temperatures to 2.0ms at beyond-hot temperatures: Similarly, the cranking pulse is the injector pulse width during cranking (I think by default 'cranking' is defined as less than 300 RPM, you can adjust this but it seems fine for most cars). For this I go as high as 10ms for below-freezing conditions to 3.0ms for a fully hot-start. Obviously this is an important one for achieving easy cold starting. I admit though that I live in a rather mild climate so haven't really tested this very much on sub-freezing days, and I suspect my hot-start parameters are a bit on the rich side, but I have not fully run this one down yet. I'm basically saying, take these values with a grain of salt, and if anyone wants to propose more fully-researched values, I'd be happy to hear from you! 3.) - Warmup But wait, there's more! After the engine catches and has started, it still wants more fuel than normal for a few seconds while everything 'gets moving,' so to speak. This is accomplished by setting an addition enrichment percentage (added to the normal VE fueling calculated value), again based on temperature. There's actually two tables involved, the first is how MUCH additional enrichment is provided (the afterstart enrichment, or ASE, percentage), and the second is for how LONG, in engine cycles, it is applied for (ASE Taper): Ok, now we've gotten the starting and first ~30 seconds of parameters set, but what about for the rest of the time it takes for the car to get warmed up to operating temperature? Well, again there's two adjustments for this. The first is warmup enrichment. This is basically the same idea as ASE, but now base purely on coolant temperature and input as a total percentage of normal calculated fuel amount. I consider my car 'up to operating temperature' by about 170 degrees F, though you'll notice I chose phase out the warm up enrichment a little earlier at 150 degrees. Those last 20 degrees don't seem to matter much in how it runs, and for keeping the normal tuning process clean I like to not have to worry about factoring in warmup enrichment as a variable. One other variable to notice in here is the Flood Clear Threshold %. This is another starting parameter and is the throttle position at which Megasquirt assumes that you've accidentally flooded the engine and will SHUT DOWN all the injectors during cranking. This is a nice feature, but if you are used to starting your car with the throttle open, that will be a habit that you need to break! With properly set up Megasquirt tune, you should let it handle everything and always keep you foot off the pedal during starting in all conditions. 4.) - Idle Now that we have the fuel set up for the warmup phase, obviously the next important part is the intake air. This is set in the Idle PWM duty cycle if using a PWM valve, or in Idle Steps if using an IAC stepper motor. Note that there are conditions for cranking/starting to be set here as well. For starting, the IAC can be set to a cranking position, and move to the right spot per engine temperature. This is set in the Idle Control table. The Start Value is how many steps the stepper motor retracts (opens) when first powered up. This should be enough to get it from the fully closed to fully open position. The next box, cranking position, is how far it then closes back down from the fully open position. This then is effectively how much air your letting in during cranking, or put another way, how much throttle you want during starting, but without using the gas pedal. The third important box is the crank-to-run taper time, which is the number of seconds after the engine has started that it will hold this position before closing down further to the calculated position for the current engine temperature: Now that the starting parameters are set, next up is the warmup parameters. This is similarly adjusted as a table of IAC steps per temperature. Remember you'll want the IAC fully closed by the time the engine is warmed up, so this value in steps should match the start value from earlier, so that it always runs from fully open to fully closed: 5.) - Acceleration Enrichment Ok, this should cover all of the basic parameters for getting the car started and idling from cold to warm, other than the main VE table. There's one last area that we want to adjust first before getting there though, and that is acceleration enrichment. Just like the accelerator pump on a carburetor, this system provides a little extra fuel during the transient periods that you are actually changing the throttle position. It can use either changes in manifold absolute pressure (MAP), or changes is throttle position (TPS) as inputs, or a combination of the two. I use a 50/50 split of both, found it's smart to raise the threshold a bit, so that normal 'noise' from either the MAP or TPS sensor doesn't trigger any unwanted acceleration enrichment to kick in. Tuning this acceleration enrichment properly will help give you that nice snappy throttle response you undoubtedly want: You can also take this one step further if you want and try playing with the X-Tau correction tables. X-Tau corrects for an amount of fuel that gets 'stuck' on the walls of the intake port and valve (momentarily leaner), and then gets burned up *later* once it evaporates (momentarily richer), but I've never personally turned on X-Tau correction or tried to mess with it at all, so I can't offer you much advice beyond the basic operating principal here. 6.) Speed-Density vs. Alpha-N and the VE table Finally to the main fun part, the VE table! Let's firstly understand exactly what this is. At the very beginning in the Injection Control section, we told Megasquirt how much fuel our 2.0L engine will need under IDEAL conditions with perfect cylinder filling, but what about real-world conditions? This is where the VE table comes into play. At idle with a closed throttle plate, each cylinder isn't pulling in a full 0.5L worth of air, so clearly less fuel is necessary. Cylinder filling is also different at different RPMs; even at full throttle there's a difference in how much air the engine can pull in at 2000 vs. 5000 RPM. These two variables, engine load and engine speed, are the axes of the VE table, and the values then are nothing more than a percentage of that ideal amount of fuel for perfect cylinder filling. So referencing the earlier Required Fuel value that we calculated as 17.6 (in ms), a value in the VE table of 50 would mean that we're asking for 8.8ms of fuel at that particular operating point. Now with that all cleared up, we ready to address the difference between speed-density and Alpha-N. Fortunately it's pretty straight forward: speed-density uses manifold absolute pressure (or MAP) as the input for engine load, and Alpha-N uses the throttle position for load instead. In my humble opinion, speed-density is the superior method. Alpha-N works OK if you don't have a good MAP signal (for instance in an ITB setup), but if you CAN get a good MAP signal, then that's better for two reasons. First, it automatically compensates for changes in elevation. Going for a nice drive up into the mountains? No problem, as the air gets less dense, this is automatically reflected in the MAP, and Megasquirt leans things out for you. It's like changing out jets while driving! Secondly, I like that MAP is a more direct measurement of engine load, where as throttle position is one step further removed. (Incidentally mass air flow, or MAF, is one step better still, as it directly measures the mass of the oxygen entering the intake, which is why all modern OEM applications use it). Note: it's important to also use (and calibrate) an intake air temperature (IAT) sensor when using speed-density. The intake air changes density with temperature (aka there's less oxygen available at a given pressure with warmer air as opposed to cooler air), so the input from the IAT allows Megasquirt to compensate for this. Other than calibrating your sensor, I don't think there is any other setup needed for IAT correction, unless you wish to set up a non-linear correction curve (not sure when this is necessary though). Anyway, without further ado, here is what my VE table looks like: Remember yous might need to look a bit different, depending on your engine/pistons/cam/etc! I'll explain a few of the more important regions of the table now though: Idle - I have my car set to idle at about 900 RPM and there it's at about 40 kPa. I've found a VE of about 44 to give the smoothest, tad-rich (AFR ~14.0) idle. Notice that I keep this area of the VE table pretty flat with a lot of 44s so that a little fluctuation in idle speed or MAP signal won't drastically affect the injector pulse widths. Cruising - This is in the mid-MAP range (around 40-70kPa) from 2000-4000 RPM. Here the VE tables are only in the 50-60 range, not a whole lot higher than idle, compared to the 70 and up for most of the higher load and higher rev area. While cruising down the highway or a back road with only light throttle, you can really run much leaner than when you're accelerating, and thereby get much better fuel economy. More on this is the AFR section but for now just remember to not get too aggressive with the VEs in this area. Peak power/torque - Just the opposite of cruising, here at high load you want to error on the richer side. At full throttle above idle and higher RPMs with even a modest amount of throttle applied, I'm pretty much have the VEs at least up to 75, and they climb from there up to above 100 in the peak power band. You may also notice that my MAP axis goes up to 110kPa: above atmospheric pressure. This is because the 318i manifold has magnificent resonance properties in the mid-range (due to its long intake runners) and thus delivers a healthy bit of supercharging in this sweet spot, so I needed to run the table up into that range to capture this. Megasquirt will extrapolate linearly out beyond the VE table, but I prefer to try to keep everything under my control as much as possible. Note that for a turbo application, your VE table MAP axis should run all the way up to your max boost pressure, and VEs should also be increased accordingly. Overrun - This is the high vacuum area at the very bottom of the table (20-30kPa) when the throttle is closed for deceleration. Obviously you don't need much fuel here, so the VE numbers stay pretty low. I do raise them a tad at the low RPM just so the area around idle is smoother, though in truth I'm not sure if seeing as low as 20kPa at <1200 RPM is even realistic. 7.) EGO and AFR table If you're an experienced carb tuner, it's entirely possible to develop a pretty good VE table with just narrow-band or no O2 feedback (my dad and I did this on his 911 Megasquirt build) and achieve pretty good results. But in this day and age, using wide-band O2 feedback makes this infinitely simpler, and utilizing the AFR table and EGO closed-loop feedback in Megasquirt makes it so easy it almost feels like cheating. NOTE: I STRONGLY recommend leaving closed-loop EGO correction OFF or at least restricted with very limited authority while you develop your VE table until it's quite good on it's own. Just last weekend on my way to the Vintage my EGR sensor started to fail and reading very (untruthfully) rich, which caused the EGO control to reduce fuel and made the car run LEAN! Fortunately the EGO only had 5% authority, so I was only running 5% lean. But if I had for example had the EGO dialed up to 30%, then it would have instead run 30% and that would have been VERY bad! You want a good solid VE table as you basis, with EGO just for tuning feedback and at the most fine adjustments while running. The AFR table is just what it sounds like. It looks just like the VE table only here the numbers are your desired AFR target at the given operating points. Just like I mentioned for the VE table above, I like my idle area to be just on the rich side of stoichiometric, lean while cruising, rich under heavy load, and a bit lean on overrun, and smooth transitions between these areas: Again you should decide what works best for your own specific car, but this should give you and idea for a starting point. Next, here is what my EGO control settings look like. With a well developed VE table, I allow it the authority to adjust the fueling amount by 10% to try and hit the AFR targets. While dialing in an early VE table, I would suggest starting with no more than 5% (have some EGO is helpful during tuning, as it allows you to see in the datalogs when the EGO is kicking in and how much). I also cut the EGO control out at idle (only active above 1200 RPM) and at full throttle (only active below 75% TPS or 90 kPa). This is generally considered good practice so that the controller doesn't end up 'chasing its tail' in a feedback loop in these sensitive areas: 8.) Spark advance table Assuming that you're using Megasquirt to control your ignition (or even if you using something different like the 123Ignition distributor), you'll need to program in your desired ignition curve. The factory advance curve is a pretty good but conservative starting point, with about 15 degrees of advance at idle and 30 degrees of 'all-in' advance by 3000 RPM, and then an additional of ~5 degrees or so added for the overrun/high vacuum areas. My advance curve is slightly more aggressive than stock but still on the conservative side. I found the biggest improvement to come from a steeper climb in advance just above idle helps a lot with pulling off the line. I've think that 2002s tend to really like more advance in general, and I think with good 91 octane gas and a well dialed-in VE tune you can get all the way up to 40 degrees all-in, but play it safe starting out and increase slowly to avoid issues with pinging/detonation! I also found it helpful to increase advance just a bit *below* idle speed, so that idle sits in a bit of a 'valley' in the advance curve, which helps keep it stable: 9.) Datalogging and tuning Congratulations, you now have all of basics setup and should be ready to try starting your car! Here's my recommendation of steps to follow for the first startup: 1.) Cranking - Double check your timing, cranking/ASE, and idle control settings and then make sure the engine at least catches after a small amount of cranking. It's OK if it doesn't want to idle yet, but if it doesn't want to fire at all then go back to the wiring and these three settings first. 2.) Idle - First aim for a faster than normal idle, maybe ~1200 RPM, and adjust the warmup and fast idle parameters to try and keep it in this range until the car is fully warmed up. Once it's warm, make sure all warmup enrichment and fast idle adjustments have all cut out, and then work on the VE table, timing, and the mechanical idle stop to get a smooth idle at your desired idle RPM with an AFR in the low 14s. After you have a good warm idle, you'll probably need to go back later after another cold start and re-tweak the warmup and fast idle settings. 3.) Accel enrichment - Once you've got the car warmed up and idling nicely, start playing with the acceleration enrichment settings to get good throttle response so that the engine revs up quickly when you blip the gas and then returns back to a good idle without drama. 4.) Datalogging - Great, now time for a test drive! But before you pull out of the driveway, start recording a datalog (built-in capability with TunerStudio). This will let you review everything that happens during your drive and decide where and what adjustments need to be made accordingly. Here's an example from one of my logs. Let's just focus on the top most of the three graphs. Here, white is RPM, red is MAP, and green is AFR (you may want to enlarge for better viewing): In the first (left) half of the graph, I'm cruising and then decelerating. MAP is generally low, AFR is staying on the high side, and RPM is coming down with a few upward blips where I downshift. As soon as I come to a stop (low point on white RPM line), I then do a moderate acceleration in 1st and then close to full throttle for 2nd and 3rd (middle portion of the graph). If you look closely you can see a brief point early in the 1st gear run-up where the RPM drops just a little (I'm pretty sure this is due to the clutch engaging) and the AFR goes a bit high/lean - This is an area where I should consider increasing the value in the VE table! The gear shifts are the 'spikes' in the RPM line. Right where the indicator line is at I have lots of throttle (93.5 kPa) in 2nd gear at 4139 RPM and AFR is 13.2. In the tiny gauges at the very bottom of the screen, you can see that my target AFR (AFRtrgt1) in this area is set to 12.5, so I might want to richen this are up slightly, but 13.2 is already pretty good. The thing that does jump out at me in this section though are the low (rich) spikes in the AFR line right when I close the throttle (MAP goes low) to shift. This means I ought to decrease the amount of fuel during deceleration in my acceleration enrichment parameters (decel cut is just the opposite of accel enrichment for when the throttle is actively closing). In the last (right) section of the datalog, I shift into 4th and am back up to speed and cruising again and the AFRs nicely go back up the leaner cruising numbers. It takes some practice to get the hang of looking at and correctly interpreting all of this stuff in the datalogs, but THIS IS HOW YOU TUNE, FOLKS, so start grabbing some data and practicing! You should be able to get things running pretty well with just a few goes, but it will take many, many different rounds of test drives and the resulting finer and finer tweaks to get things close to perfect, but hey, this is part of the fun of DIY Megasquirt after all! Good luck and I encourage you to post additional questions and/or datalogs in the comments if you need further help with any specifics! View full article
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