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About this blog

I am starting to install a Holley Sniper EFI on my 2002,  if it proves to be interesting, I will post it here. 

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Wrap up on the build. Then more to come.

So... it has been quite a journey.  At more than one point I felt that I wouldn't be writing this for the following reasons.   1) 40MM DGAV carbs are significant for these cars.  There are many stories of a 38MM not running as good as a 32/36, let along a 40mm.  2) Could the injectors run efficiently down to the flow rates of a 2L? ( we can talk about this one a little later).  3) Would an adapter work for the stock intake?  Would it act funny?  Would the added height make a difference? 4)Would the sharp 90 degrees turn going into the intake pool fuel at the bottom of it?  5) Is there enough space for the fuel pump, filters et al. 6) Would there be enough exhaust flow to get an accurate AFR for the system to tune? 7) Would the dimensions of the EFI, be able to fit under the hood? 😎 What to do with the linkage.  9) Would I have vacuum issues?  Would it affect the brakes? 10) What sort of ignition advance should I run?.  Would a stock Tii curve be best in my 123?  11) Would the fuel fall out of suspension on such a large bore of intake and make it impossible to idle.  12) Would the Coolant Temperature Sensor work mounted correctly in the intake?.  13) How do I tune this thing?
So let me try to summarise here, what we have discussed over the past five other blogs — starting from the beginning. 
1) Equipment: I like the Holley EFI sniper.  It is a well-built unit, the parts, connectors, instructions and most importantly, support, is good.... except for one thing... the O2 sensor. 
 
O2 sensor   The 02 sensor is notoriously short-lived in many of these installs.  The issue is not limited to just my application.  They do not last long, but thankfully the replacements are about $60, and the chances are that you will be replacing one under warranty.    Fuel pump   I used a summit fuel pump rather than the Holley one, just because they seem to have a higher than average failure rate.  In all fairness, many people (including me still) do not plumb the return line properly into the tank.  You want to return the fuel using a proper -6 fitting, and have a short length of hose in the tank to return it to the bottom, where it doesn't froth the fuel.   If the pump pulls up this frothed fuel, it causes tiny little explosions (cavitation) f when the bubbles pop on the fuel impeller and cause it to fail prematurely.   Now that I have the system working correctly and I know it is going to be installed for good, I will have my fitting installed.    Fuel lines   I used summit fuel lines with Summit brand -6 fittings for the most part.  I didn't go high budget, but I made sure that the hoses were built well.  I also didn't use ethanol rated hoses as I won't have access to E85, and I run premium 92 ethanol free fuel.   I also give a bit of a squirt of Lucas fuel additive when I fill up to keep the valves and the combustion chamber clean and lubed... I don't think it could hurt.    Fuel Filter   I purchased a canister style fuel filter with a 40-micron filter and plumbed it between the tank and the pump.   Holley suggests at 10-micron filter after. I will pick one up and put it in when I finish the install of the -6 return inlet in the gas tank.      MSD 6a and Flywheel   In anticipation that I was going to do some performance upgrades, I installed an MSD 6a, and when I switched to a five-speed, I had the flywheel lightened.  The only effect the lightened flywheel may have is that it returns to idle quickly, due to less inertia, so the idle tuning was perhaps a little more difficult as a result.    The MSD 6a I would say is the most important thing to have installed for this build.  The EFI can put out a lot of fuel. The MSD I feel makes the tune a little more forgiving, for the simple reason that you get a stronger spark and better combustion.   I had flooded the car with the EFI when I was trying to adjust the startup parameters, so even the MSD is not foolproof.   There is a function in the software that allows you to floor it, and it will shut off the fuel when cranking, kind of like what you do with a carbed system.   Intake   Other than having the intake under the carb bored out to take advantage of the Dual 40mm( it is 41.5mm) inlets.  I had the intake port matched to the head.  For S**ts and giggles, I took a ball hone and smoothed out the inside of the runners (see the previous blog).  I am not sure that this made a difference, but when you are there, I don't see the harm in doing it.  This being said, many others much much more experienced than me said that smoothing out the intake would have the fuel fall out of suspension easier or earlier.  If you are concerned about that, then don't do it.   Or if you have the time install it stock and then pull off the intake hone it and see if you like the change.    Temp Sensor   I installed the temperature sensor in the intake.  The temperature does wonder quite a bit, especially in traffic.  After idling in traffic for 1-2 hours, the temp went to what I think is about 185 (2/3 of the way up on the dash gauge),  the intake stayed about 165.   After 2 min on the road, they came in line.  The inlet air temperature also went up as well, but I then realized that the breather had slipped off its base, letting engine compartment air in.  After I realigned it and snugged it up, the temperature now remaines constant.    Exhaust   I had what I think was a Stahl long header.  It was rusty and cracked at the collector.  I decided before the build that  I was going to replace it with something better.  I then decided to re-do my air conditioning, so that meant that a turbo was less likely; hence the I.E try y header.    Linkage   The linkage was the most frustrating at the beginning of the build.  I initially purchased a cable system and adapted it to be used with the linkage.   I think it was for a DCOE cable apparatus.  Regardless of what it was, it didn't work.  It was more of an on/off switch it stuck so bad.   So I had to build one.    I used the design that AustrianVespaGuy had for his EFI conversion.  I adapted it a bit.  As you can see  (pictures coming) it is essentially it is an "L" shaped bracket attached to the brake booster.  One end to the throttle rod, the other end to the throttle body.    I had my fabricator buddy press in a bearing to make it operate smoothly.  I had a heim jointed throttle rod, purchased from a fellow 02 member already,  so it made for a much better and easily modulated pedal.     It took a lot of fiddling, but it was worth it.  What is essential to do is make sure that the throttle returns completely.  Every time you start the EFI system it "0's" the TPS,  and uses that for the baseline.   This is essential for every function of the system that the opening for the throttle is exact, especially for idle.    If you don't then you get a high idle if it is stuck or other annoying behaviours that make it next to impossible to set the idle.     There are two return springs built into the throttle body itself.  There is a third one in the pedal box and a fourth that is stock at the point where the throttle rod meets the rod going into your carb.   My best advice is to make sure that they all are in intact and in good working order, even with that the TPS is sensitive sometimes to show 1% when the pedal is fully released.   Noise at the TPS is not your friend, especially so due to the small opening required to maintain idle on such a small motor.    Here is a link to the heim jointed shaft.  Really really nice feeling.        Wiring/Electrical    Simply put,  do exactly what the instructions say.   Take your time, do it right.  I don't want to imagine how to troubleshoot this one.    This includes putting a little bit of shrink tube over the ends of the wires you don't use.    Going through the firewall wasn't pretty.  I have to go back and clean this up, and I am not sure what I am going to do.  You need about a 1" hole to fish through the wires going from the TB into the car, especially if you want to run the screen inside the car.   I ended up drilling two smaller holes side by side and then opening them up.    I haven't used any of the outputs, like the AC kick-down, or the fan controllers, but I do plan on using that in the future.  It will be a nice backup to have the AC fan turn on as a backup if the car is overheating.    Also, the EFI will accommodate the idle when the AC kicks in, and to help with passing power, it will temporarily shut off the AC when you floor it to pass, giving you extra power.... very cool (pun intended)    Tuning This brings me to the part that is by far the hardest to document Reading the balance of my Blog will show the path that I took to get to where I am now with the tune. I thoroughly encourage people to use this area to post their tunes and techniques on getting them.    In the end, this is what I did.    I put a bit of tape over the IAC inlet in the top, this is to isolate the influence of the IAC on your idle and mixture.  When in this mode, you can use the fuel table to tune manually.     Before you start going too crazy,  set up the idle fuel AFR.  Trust me when I say,  it should be at least 12.5.   It will overshoot, meaning not stopping at your set idle (between 800RPM to 1000 RPM idle,  go all the way to 0 rpm and bounce back.  This drove me nuts for weeks on end.  I thought it was a "false lean" because the data was showing when I closed the throttle the AFR would spike.   This had lead me down a false path of controlling fuel flow when the throttle was shut.    After the new header went in, I realized it was really lean, and not a "false lean".  Reading up on false lean is very helpful, essentially it is caused by fuel soaking the 02 sensor, and causing it to not see any air until it dries out.      I  digress.  Start by adding fuel, especially around the bottom left-hand corner of the fuel map (this is the area where it idles).      In a separate screen open up the screen for the data graphs.  Pick the "1000" pts from the drop-down in the top left corner of the screen.  This allows pulling back from the data and look at the overall pattern.    Select Target AFR, Actual AFR and RPM for now out of the choices on the left.  The Actual AFR should be spending a lot of its time close to either side of the Target AFR.     My problem with my first 02 Sensor from Holley, is that it was reading all over the place.  My Second 02 sensor was reading evenly, but incorrectly as it would always be reading 2.0 below the target, no matter what I did.  The third 02 sensor did the trick.  It tracked along the actual nicely and made life really easy after that.    So while the IAC is blocked off.  Set your actual idle via the throttle plate adjustment screw and get it about 50-75 RPM below your target that is set in the software (that is what some tuners say to do, I set my idle at my target).   So if you set your idle in the software for 900 RPM.  Get it to idle about 850, with your IAC blocked off with your AFR close to your target of about 12.5, or whatever you set it to in your target AFR table.    Adjust the fuel table manually, adjust the throttle screw until both are in balance and your AFR is on target.   If while on the data graph page, you see the TPS sensor read anything above 0. Turn the car off then on.  It will reset the baseline for the TPS and set it to 0 (it does this every time you start the car),  this is important since a lot of other functions depend on knowing the Throttle Position 
So you are now looking at the data graph screen.    Your AFR  should be close to where you want it.  Your RPM is about where you want it (perhaps a little low) and your TPS is at 0.  Stop the car.  Take the tape off the top of the throttle body that covers the IAC intake.    Start the car.    This is where my tune build works well but not perfect.    Your IAC should be between 2-10,  although I have a tendency to ignore it,  solely because it takes time for the IAC to react, and with a small displacement engine, it is hard-pressed to react and do it accurately (at least that is my theory now).   You can play with a setting that controls how fast it reacts.   I played with it and didn't see any difference in how the idle reacted.    Rev the car and see how it is coming down to idle.  My car has a lightened flywheel, so coming down to idle may happen faster then yours does.  Adjust your idle with the setting in the Holley and adjust the throttle plate as required to make sure it doesn't overrun.  I had to fiddle with this a lot, but got it working well.   
Tune specific notes:   I have locked down the learning, specifically around idle.  I will let it add more fuel around my idle, but not less ALA Austrianvespaguy's recommendation,  make a nice "flat spot" in your target AFR table where your car wants to idle.   This will make it easier for the system to find a stable idle.   the smoothing function in the software is your friend, but don't overuse it.   Intuitively you want to see everything smooth,  I don' t think that is necessarily correct.  To me reign in the changes by changing the 'learn' table.   It starts off at 100%,  meaning that the learn table can alter the fuel flow by 100%.  As you get closer you start reducing this down.   For the size of our motors,  20-30% is a healthy change.      Closed-loop change:  Keep this tight at idle. and open it up once you are in the throttle.   I locked my tune down.  If I opened it up too much, my idle gets a little weird and bi-polar.    Learn table:  Keep it tight at idle,   let it open up a bit at higher engine loads and RPM's    I am sure that there is more stuff that I am missing, but this is a good start.  I will update with some pretty pictures and a ride along, as soon as Vancouver digs itself out of some snow.    Next thing:  incorporating the Sniper EFI system to control timing.      Video of the finished product thus far.    4kwxYRDQR3yU5cgFfdLtgg.MOV      

Dudeland

Dudeland

Time for a Pro? or do I go?

Ok so I am having a problem.  I can set up the car just fine, part throttle, full throttle, cruise is just fine.  When I come off the throttle,  the revs will drop, and either catch at about 800 rpm stumbles or almost stalls to 100 RPM then recovers.    When I take my foot off the gas, it pins full lean, even if I force the system to still pump fuel. So it is one of two things   1) My spark control is bad or something with the ignition that I can't figure out.  Everything has been gone through, there is one thing I need to check with Holley tech support.  I have an adapter to run the tach.  I am not sure if it should be on the MSD now that the Sniper is in or run off the "Tach out" on the Holley. From all that I can read, it doesn't matter.  Losing spark on the way down would cause a false lean.    If anyone knows if something that will fool the Holley, please let me know.  The Holley can control the timing but I would have to heavily modify a Holley dual-sync dizzy to fit   It needs a 12V square wave output, not sure If I can get there with a trigger wheel.  I am looking at the megajolt software tonight.     2) The other thing is it is registering a false lean for another unknown reason, be it a combination of head, header, intake etc... that will require an engineer to diagnose, and expertise far beyond mine. New intake gaskets, header,and a new O2 sensor after the Holley one broke (will get replaced under warranty), cap rotor, plugs just to make sure that it isn't something simple, has been done. Voltages look fine, worked with my NA setup.    The problem, as far as I can tell, is that the false lean, causes the EFI to dump fuel, then it dumps too much, on the way down to idle.,  floods it and causes it to stall and stumble.  Can this be tuned out? I am not sure.     Maybe I am reading this all wrong, but it is the only thing that makes sense based on the fuel flow and the data and what I can cobble together.  Any other theories are welcome.     It does idle nice, if I am out of closed loop, it is just every time I come to a stop, the stalling is just too annoying to overlook.      Below is the data.    On the left side, I forced open loop so the Closed loop comp stops trying to fix this.   On the right, I have closed loop, and you can see the idle peak then drop.  The red is RPM.         Below you can see how CL comp chases the spike lean in the AFR.                        Sniper Log hunting idle.dl BMW2002 v 14 Reboot.sniper.info.txt

Dudeland

Dudeland

Now for a nice tune.

So I ran some errands this morning.  I decided to put on the data logger and here is what I got.  You can download the sniper EFI tool (windows only) at the following link. The timing should be accurate to within a degree or so.  I am running a 123 so I can change the advance and vac curves.   This is all I know, I need to learn from here.      https://documents.holley.com/techlibrary_sniper1.1.3installer.zip         Regards             sniper_0003.dl

Dudeland

Dudeland

It Works? !!!!

So it is in and works.   But I can't tell how well it works because the Linx cable linkage that I modified sucks.  The gas pedal is more like an on-off switch, very sticky.  I haven't drifted the car so much in my life.  Genuinely entertaining, but quite harry at the same time, especially in downtown traffic.    So I am in the midst of getting some bits made so I can use my sweet sweet heim joints.   I am copying what Australian Vespa Guy did with an L bracket thing mounted to the brake booster.   I have attached the first start video, but the linkage sticks, so the TPS hangs at 1% about half of the time (no closed loop learning), so setting the idle is useless until I straighten out the linkage.    Kind regards and thank you all for your support.  Much more to come.    First Start.m4v                  

Dudeland

Dudeland

Repent and Ye will be saved

Ok, so I put in an MSD 6A a while ago, I was in a bit of hurry with the intent of coming back later and tidying it up after I knew that it would work.   So now is the time I fixed it up.   Here is what I pulled out of it.   I know I am not the only one to have done something to come back and fix up later... but still what a pile of shit job I did.   Everything is now soldered, shrink wrapped, taped and zip tied.    I am off to finish the wiring today, purge the fuel lines to get the residue of rubber out of them from putting the ends  Perhaps the first start today although I have a meeting that I can't avoid that will eat up some time.   Also, I took the opportunity to remove the wiring for the smog stuff.                 

Dudeland

Dudeland

Progress

The fuel pump is in and wired, 02 sensor is installed. Coolant system buttoned up.    Return line completed.  I have a -6 header fitting, but no space on the fuel pickup to put it, so I plumbed in the return to the breather pipe that the California cars have in the tank.   Not a permanent solution (I promise).   I am taking it first thing to my fabricator to install the 02 bung properly, and I will have him put in the -6 header when I am at it.  And have him check everything over to make sure it is safe.    Wires are through the firewall, and it seems like a spaghetti monster has exploded under the dash.   I cleaned up the smog stuff, but am hesitant to take it all off, just in case there is something crucial there. I will have to read through the posts for de-smogging.   I will likely clean up the wires going to the MSD, as I was using the original coil wire (sans resistor).    I got the wrong sensor adaptor for the carb, so will have to make due and get a -6 to -6 male to accommodate the fuel pressure sensor.    The carb is just sitting there.  I need different bolts, as the plate kit came with SAE instead of metric screws to go into the intake.   The linkage is looking super easy to fabricate, with a couple of heim joints and threaded rod,  so I don't think I will need the Linx wire linkage.   So getting closer, perhaps I test fire by the weekend   Enjoy                          

Dudeland

Dudeland

How much pressure am I under!!!???

Ok so in light of the fact that fuel pressure is very, very important to fuel injection operating correctly.  I decided to get a digital fuel pressure gauge for the car.  With old gas tanks, and aftermarket parts and fuel system, you really don't know how the car is going to react.  Rather than guessing what it is, or if something is going wrong, I can take fuel pressure out of the pool of questions.   I also wanted to see the change in fuel pressure under different driving conditions.    Worst case scenario, I replace my existing oil pressure gauge with this one, as it matches my current AEM afr gauge.     The Sniper EFI allows you to manually correct for actual fuel pressure in the software.  So it can factor in pressure that may be slightly higher or lower than the desired fuel pressure of 59-60 PSI.  The -6 to -6 fitting will also help because the existing -6 coming from my tank will be too short, as I realized only later that the fuel inlets will be facing forward.    If this thing does work then I will likely replace the pump with a returnless in tank unit when I get my gas tank re-done.  At some point in the tank's history, the bottom was dented in, not enough to really worry about, but it still needs to be addressed.      So this morning while I was having my coffee I came up with this from Summit.    AER-FBM2183 FITTING Ready to Ship $9.99 1 $9.99  (-6 an to -6 an with a 1/8 NPT hole for fuel pressure sensor) AVM-30-4401 FLUID PRESSURE GAUGE OIL/WATER Ready to Ship $195.79 1 $195.79 (fuel pressure gauge, although it says oil/water) SUM-220687 -06 90 HOSE END SWIVEL Ready to Ship $12.59 1 $12.59 (swivel fitting for fuel) SUM-220688 6AN 120 DEGREE HOSE END Ready to Ship $15.29 1 $15.29 (swivel fitting for fuel) SUM-220690 6AN HOSE END STRAIGHT Ready to Ship $4.49 1 $4.49 (swivel fitting for fuel) SUM-220691 6AN 150 DEGREE HOSE END Ready to Ship $15.29 1 $15.29 (swivel fitting for fuel)    Express shipping to Canada hurt a little  ($40 vs 18) and brokerage was higher by about $15,         

Dudeland

Dudeland

Intake back and a bit of a mock up

So I got my intake back... in one day.  I think he is getting a little excited to see this thing going.  Some more picks.  I thought that there may be an interference problem with the coolant pipe that comes out by the carb, but it is on an angle and will not interfere with the TPS sensor on the EFI.      I realized after the mock-up that the fuel inlets will have to be around the front since the throttle lever needs to hang over the side to work.  This is something I needed to commit to right up front because the flange and adapter are offset.  I tried flipping it around and nothing lined up.   Perhaps I could mod the throttle lever to work on the other side, but I feel that the lever rotation towards the firewall will make it easier to put together a linkage.  Also If it ends up not working, It will be saleable.    I had to order a new water diverter, I could feel the pitting on the inside of the pipes, so it is just a matter of time before it pushes through all the way, and I have a leak.      I also ordered a linkage kit for a Link manifold.  I thought it was the most flexible option I have at this point, although I am not willing to let go my beautiful heim jointed linkage just yet. (silky smooth)    I had the port on the intake drilled and tapped for the 3/8 npt coolant sensor, It should be ok, but I will double check.   I could be wrong, but it looks like a standard GM unit.  I had the other vacuum ports for the emission hoses welded shut as well.   I had the intake ports matched to the head. I had read that had helped.  Also, I ordered a 1 1/4" flex-hone, to help smooth out the casting in the intake.  I am not taking it down all the way to a polish, but just smooth it out a bit.    Now back to the stupid heater box.  So dam fiddly, I will be glad once it is in.  Every time I think I have all the cracks fixed, I find more.  It should be in by Monday... make that Thursday or whenever...  The weather is gorgeous here in Vancouver, and I will be spending as much time as I can with my family.     .            

Dudeland

Dudeland

Unboxing and anticipated problems, but nothing big.

So I quickly realized that the adapter for the Holley to Weber is for an approximately 36MM bore,  the Sniper is 40mm bore, no biggie, I have to get the intake off and hogged out, so I will get my guy to make it bigger at the same time.  I am pulling off the intake tonight (hopefully) to get my guy to work on it tomorrow.    The height seems ok, the EFI with the adapter is about 10CM to the air cleaner mounting surface, I measured the Weber to be a bit over 11CM, If I were to include the adapter I use, it would add about another CM on top of that because my adapter sits proud of the lip of my 32/36.  So air cleaner clearance seems ok.    So it is kinda like putting a 40x40 DGV Weber carb... The question will still remain if it will flow properly at idle. Because the Sniper is synchronous and the 32/36 is progressive, It will be that more fun to tune.    Here are some measurements of the height of the sniper vs a regular 32/36.   Enjoy,  I will post some pre and post pics of the intake.     

Dudeland

Dudeland

Temp Gauge location

In an attempt to expedite the changeover to the Sniper, I want to pre-drill a fitting.  Can anybody add to what is mentioned in the forums?.  I am thinking in the housing going into the head...... Is everybody ok with that?  or do we have hose people as well?     I would love to know.     

Dudeland

Dudeland

Tech Boner, 77 pages of math that will manage my car.

I am a big data entrepreneur in real life, so this has got me thinking about the data coming from the engine and how its interpretation results in the adjustment to the air valve and the injectors.    I have read the manual.  The first time I was was completely sober, along with the second and third time... the fourth time... not so much.  It seemed to sink in the fourth time around a lot more.  The way that this system allegedly manufactures the digital version of real-life parts of a carburated system is fascinating, like a choke, accelerator pump, the prime you get when you set the choke. It is also interesting how it accommodates physical anomalies in the engine as it warms.   I haven't quite got my head around the learning algorithm, and how it can be dialed in, overlays etc...  I think I may need to dust off a big Bordeau that I have been holding onto for the past 15 years and load up on a nice rib steak from my favourite meat shop (no offence to the vegans of which there are a lot in Vancouver) and settle in. I am about to re-do my heater box, and since the cooling system is open, I think I will drill and tap the housing.  The cooling sensor that comes with it is 3/8 NPT, with adapters to 1/2 inch if needed.   A long time ago I got the 11mm manifold bots from Ireland engineering, which I will use when I reinstall the manifold and the coolant diverter.    Pictures to come, but much more likely a video, I have felt that the GoPro in my house has been underutilized.  Sniper 2BBL EFI Manual.pdf

Dudeland

Dudeland

F'it

So I finally stopped navel gazing and ordered the gear up to install a Holley Sniper 2BBL EFI system.   The parts list is below.  
HLY-558-443 HARNESS USB/CAN SNIPER TBI $49.95
SNE-550-849 2 BBL EFI THROTTLE BODY $849.95
SUM-230615 S.S. HOSE -6 15FT $57.99
SUM-251000 FUEL PUMP EXTERNAL $119.99 (ordered this as the Holley unit seems to fail quickly in some cases)
SUM-251010 FUEL PUMP MOUNTING KIT 1 $7.99
VPE-16612 -6AN TO 10MM X 1.0 METRIC STR  $11.90   Also ordered a Holley 350 (same base plate as the Holley EFI)  to Webber adapter.  Anticipating that I may want to go EFI I have installed the following already  1) AEM wideband 02 sensor 2) Electric fuel pump with a Painless Performance relay harness 3) Inertia safety cutoff switch (cuts off the fuel pump in an accident) 4) 90A alternator 5) Ireland engineering  radiator  (to make sure that everything is cool) 6)-6 braided fuel line from the tank into the car (pre-pump, post tank) 7) All (I think) of the maintenance stuff and while you are at it stuff.    Things I will need to do other than the obvious.  1) I will likely have to take off the intake.  It has to be "hogged out" to make the intake opening compatible with the EFI unit.   2) I will port match the intake to the head and maybe smooth out the inside a bit.   I had read that the two inner runners shouldn't be touched, and just do the outside two runners as this will help even out the flow.  3) I will also modify the bit where the upper rad hose goes into the motor to accept a standard temperature sensor so the EFI can be appropriately tuned.  4) I may have to get a -6 inlet put in the gas tank as a return as the one for the evap tank (my car is a 1975 Cali spec) is rather small and may cause fuel backpressure issues if the return line is restricted.  5) I will have to figure out the pedal linkage, this is easy stuff,  my fabricator guy, and I can figure a solution out I am sure.                     

Dudeland

Dudeland